Emotional stress may have negative effects on immune system, increasing the potential of a bacterial infection to develop and cause periodontal disease. A more advanced disease of periodontitis, which is chronic inflammation and bone loss can be found to one extent or another in potentially up to 50 percent of the population over 35. 47 Putative periodontal pathogens may spread between family members 54 which could explain how colonization by periodontal pathogens in early childhood occurs in a larger proportion than previously reported. Conditions that cause decreased immunity, such as leukemia, HIV/AIDS and cancer treatment 12. Barros SP, Offenbacher S. Epigenetics as a modifiable risk factor in periodontal diseases has been investigated in light of the current knowledge of how chronic infection and inflammation can affect gene-specific epigenetic reprogramming in periodontal tissues. [3][4] [5] Social and behavioral factors include cigarette smoking, socioeconomic status, nutritional status, psychological factors and excessive alcohol consumption. J Periodontol 1996;67:1041-9. are the main causes of gum disease, Factors that can increase your risk of periodontitis include: 1. To prevent Disease Start studying Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease. Risk factors are not the etiology of the disease, but play a role in determining who may potentially develop the disease. Poor oral hygiene 4. Any plan for the prevention or treatment of periodontal diseases should target to eliminate or control as many risk factors and causes of gum disease as possible. Other factors increasing the risk of developing periodontal disease: A simple questionnaire or assessment can provide this information and educate the patient on potential oral health care issues. Periodontal disease (PD) encompasses both gingivitis and periodontitis. Research demonstrates that stress can make it more difficult for the body to fight off infection, including periodontal diseases. Modifiable risk factors are usually environmental or behavioral in nature, whereas non-modifiable risk factors are usually intrinsic to the individual and therefore can not be easily changed. Journal of Periodontology 2000;71:1874–1881. Periodontal disease is considered a disease of the poor. All rights reserved. Now that you’ve learned about predisposing factors in detail, we will now move on and discuss two other equally-important factors that contribute to the development of Periodontal Gum Disease – risk and modifying factors. Certain factors increase the risk for periodontal disease: 1. Alpagot T, Wolff LF, Smith QT, Trao SD. Ask the Colgate Chatbot! Uncontrolled or poorly controlled diabetes Type 2 increases the risk by 2.75 times. While a large body of data implicates neutrophil dysfunction, either intrinsic or acquired (bacterially or extrinsically induced), as a significant risk factor for the periodontal diseases, clear, prospective, longitudinal epidemiologic studies to evaluate this association remain to be performed. Certain medications 8. smoking (Box 3-2), poor oral hygiene compliance. Genetics 3. in over 80% of patients with periodontal disease there is also at least one or more of the other predisposing risk factors. mainly due to lack of access to dental health care and dental insurance. The first concept is that the prevalence of the two major periodontal diseases is still high in the United States population. A periodontal exam and assessment of both new and current patients in the dental practice is more important than ever. There are two diseases that have been identified around functioning dental implants in the oral cavity. Home care remains to be extremely important and patients can be referred to the Colgate website for the latest information on oral hygiene products that are effective in maintaining good oral health. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Taking medications that cause dry mouth 10. Poor oral hygiene due to morning sickness, and increased vomiting that irritates gums can further worsen the problem. Our patients need to be educated on what periodontitis is and the associated risk factors for the disease. Mouth breathing can cause dry mouth increasing the risk of gum disease. The most common risk factors for developing gum disease are: Several studies indicate that may persons have a predisposal to gum disease. Periodontal Disease Status and Associated Risk Factors in Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia Javascript is currently disabled in your browser. The triggering factors of periodontal disease are enlisted as: Poor dental hygiene . A diet rich in sugars or acids can provide the suitable environment for bacterial overgrowth, promoting gum disease. Genetics 10. Several features of this site will not function whilst javascript is disabled. Smoking or chewing tobacco 7. Necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis (NUP) is where the infection leads to attachment loss, and involves only the gingiva, periodontal ligament and alveolar ligament. Systemic conditions associated with immunodeficiency state such as neutropenia, AIDS/HIV infections are also important risk factors. Environmental risk factors, e.g. Smoking or chewing tobacco 4. Diabetes 3. Low income population, ethnic minorities and the elderly show the higher incidence of gum disease, mainly due to lack of access to dental health care and dental insurance. These hereditary causes of gum disease involve several immune system defects that reduce the body’s ability to fight the anaerobic bacteria responsible for causing plaque and periodontal disease. ... Current view of risk factors for periodontal diseases. Bridges that no longer fit properly 11. Menopause is linked to a painful condition called desquamative gingivitis, where the outer layers of the gums separate from the underlying tissue, exposing nerve endings. In order to be acquired a representative study sample the study population was stratified by age and gender. Life style risk factors, e.g. The gums become so loose that the outer layers can be easily rubbed away. Several conditions can increase the susceptibility to periodontal disease, Stanford TW(1), Rees TD. The best way to identify a periodontal condition in a patient is still through periodontal probing and pocket depth measurements and evaluation for recession, bleeding and mobility. Health conditions that decrease your immunity 9. Obesity 8. Always seek the advice of your dentist or other qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition or treatment. Other factors increasing the risk of developing periodontal disease: Risk factors that may make older people more susceptible include general health status, diminished immune status, medications, depression, worsening memory, decreased salivary flow, “Smoking is one of the most significant risk factors associated with the development of periodontal disease and the disease increase with the number of cigarettes per day” (Kachlany 44). The first is peri-implant mucositis, which is gingival inflammation with no bone loss around the implant. Acquired immune suppression and other risk factors/indicators for periodontal disease progression. While poor oral hygiene and the overgrowth of certain types of harmful bacteria The most studied are the following health issues: diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and pregnancy complications. Our patients need to be educated on what periodontitis is and the associated risk factors for the disease. Treatment can be both nonsurgical and surgical, depending on the severity of the problem.If these five concepts can form the core competency of the hygiene center of your practice today, your office and your patients will benefit immediately. It has been long known that diabetes mellitus, both type 1 and type 2, are risk factors for periodontal disease. Any rise in the female hormones level makes women during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy and those using oral contraceptives more susceptible to gum diseases. © YYYY Colgate-Palmolive Company. Periodontal disease may affect the host’s susceptibility to systemic disease through sungingival plaque acting as reservoirs of Gram –ve bacteria transient bacteremia release of microbial toxins & … pattern by genetic and acquired risk factors such as systemic disease (e.g. to conventional treatments for gum disease such as tooth scaling and root planning or gum surgery treatments. Other dental problems. Identification through genetic testing that a patient is in this high risk group should be followed by early interventive treatment to help them keep their teeth. Fortunately, it is a modifiable risk factor unlike age, sex and genetic factors. Learn more about our commitment to oral health education. Stress makes it harder for the body to fight off infection and this is also a factor contributing to periodontal disease. Diseases such as rheumatoid … smoking) even if they may have a confounding effect on the disease. Socioeconomic Factors. In fact, 70.1% of adults65 years and older have periodontal disease. Poor oral health habits 3. Female hormonal changes, such as with pregnancy or the use of oral contraceptives Behavioural risk factors, e.g. It has been reported that up to 35 percent of implant patients can have periodontal issues around their implants. Patients genetically susceptible to gum disease may experience periodontal health problems even if they have good oral hygiene habits. Obesity. Inadequate nutrition, including vitamin C deficiency 9. Underlying immuno-deficiencies—e.g., AIDS 8. Copyright 2010-2017 DentalDiseases.org. What triggers gum disease? This article is intended to promote understanding of and knowledge about general oral health topics. J Periodontol 1994; 65:521–529. This preventive care approach has been clinically shown to work. High levels of progesterone increase the blood flow and fluid retention of the gingival tissues causing swelling, irritation and tenderness of the gums. According to the CDC, periodontal disease increased with age. Clenching or grinding teeth can put the supporting tissues of the teeth under excessive force, damaging the periodontal ligament structures. Author information: (1)Department of Peiodontics Baylor College of Dentistry Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, Dallas, Texas, USA. mechanisms and some are acquired via environmental factors or lifestyle. by either contributing to the formation of bacterial plaque or/and by reducing the body’s ability to respond to bacterial infections. A diet low in important nutrients can reduce the ability of the immune system to fight infections, therefore making it easier for dental plaque to cause gum disease. Poor oral hygiene and periodontal disease may promote oropharyngeal colonization by potential respiratory pathogens (PRPs) including Enterobacteriaceae (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter species, etc. Combined with an existing gum disease problem, teeth grinding and clenching can cause the faster destruction of periodontal tissues. Periodontal disease is considered a disease of the poor. Main text: Inflammation of the gingiva appears to be a normal and physiological response to the presence of commensal bacteria along the gingival crevice and in the dental biofilm. Systemic risk factors and risk indicators for periodontal disease • Systemic risk factors include smoking, diabetes mellitus, race, genetic factors, male gender, polymorphonuclear (PMN) functional abnormalities, low economic status, low educational level, acquired systemic infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and severe malnutrition ( Table 11.1 ). The second is inflammation with suppuration (pus) and progressive bone loss. Stress is linked to many serious conditions such as hypertension, cancer, and numerous other health problems. As already stated, the non-modifiable risk factors are also referred to as risk determinants. Stress also is a risk factor for periodontal disease. This may be caused by major life events or daily minor hassles (LeResche and Dworkin 2002). Risk indicators for periodontal disease in a racially diverse urban population. Older age 5. Low income population, ethnic minorities and the elderly show the higher incidence of gum disease, Why is periodontal risk assessment important for comprehensive patient care? Among the most common are: heredity, smoking, diabetes, stress, medication, nutrition, poor oral hygiene, faulty dentistry, hormonal variations, immunocompromise, connective tissue diseases, and previous history of active perio disease. Recent studies have revealed several potentially important periodontal risk … The Two-way Relationship Between Diabetes and Periodontal Disease. However, age is only one of the risk factors of periodontal disease. Risk Factors for developing Periodontal Disease, Bridges that no longer fit properly trap food debris and allow dental plaque to accumulate and grow between the crown and gums, Malocclusion - Crooked teeth make difficult the removal of dental plaque. diabetes) or habits (e.g. The information contained in the DentalDiseases.org Site, such as text, images, and other material is provided for informational purposes only. In addition, PD is modified by several risk factors including smoking, medications, alcohol, age, gender and systemic diseases. Therefore it is important for professionals to be aware of the latest research and keep patients informed. Socioeconomic Factors. ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Risk for peri‐implantitis is increased by long‐term use of non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (3.2 ×), bisphosphonates (2.69 ×) and SSRIs (6.28 ×), as well as alcohol use (> 5 units per day; 2.3 ×). Obesity could be a potential risk factor for periodontal disease especially among younger individuals. Yes, Certain systemic or acquired risk factors are possible to control or eliminate if the patient is willing to do so. Other risk factors include: 1. All rights reserved. To establish a factor as a risk factor or determinant for periodontal disease, the evidence … In presence of any of these risk factors, extra care must be taken including careful oral hygiene and regular dental visits in order to avoid the development of periodontal diseases. Gingivitis 2. A baseline full mouth series of radiographs is required to evaluate bone levels of the dentition.Understanding who is at risk for periodontitis is also important and beneficial to the patient. drug therapies (see Box 3-1). The risk factors for periodontal diseases can be classified broadly into two categories: modifiable risk factors and non-modifiable risk factors. However like natural teeth, they can also develop periodontal conditions. Obesity could be a potential risk factor for periodontal disease especially among younger individuals. These factors can increase your risk of periodontal disease or make it worse once the infection has set in. Colgate Reaches Children in Need Across the Globe With the Power of a Bright Smile. Systemic risk factors include poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and tobacco smoking. Dry mouth helps bacterial growth by increasing the level of mouth’s pH due to reduced flow of saliva that plays a regulatory role. Patients at risk should be seen a minimum of at least once a year if they have no periodontal disease. Information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about the causes of periodontal disease, its warning signs, risk factors, and prevention and treatment. There are five key concepts that an oral health provider should know about periodontitis risk factors. Smoking 2. Almost half of all adults over 30 have some form of periodontal disease, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which also warns that certain risks can predispose you to or influence the severity of the disease… There are five key concepts that an oral health provider should know about periodontitis risk factors. stress. The inflammatory and metabolic states of the periodontal tissues are driven by the infectious stimuli, and the magnitude of the cellular and molecular signature response is further dictated by the host genetic and epigenetic traits associated with various systemic exposures, including smoking, obesity and diabetes/hyperglycemia. Poor oral health habits 6. Genetic causes are also linked with some rare early onset types of periodontal diseases in younger age patients with otherwise good oral health. Many risk factors increase the likelihood of periodontal disease development, as well as the severity and speed at which it may occur. Again, these factors are systemic factors that are either a medical problem or a behavioral condition. Hormonal changes, such as those related to pregnancy or menopause 6. Because of this relationship, periodontitis is now a risk factor for certain systemic illnesses. Substance abuse 7. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis or treatment. Another common gums problem during pregnancy are the so called ‘pregnancy tumors’, large red lumps formed on inflamed gum tissue near the gum line. Gingivitis is highly prevalent in both the adolescent and adult patients. Therefore such a plan could involve stopping smoking, changing medications, dietary and oral hygiene habits, correcting faulty restorations or treating malocclusion, in addition Patients with periodontal disease, even if effectively treated in the past, must be seen a minimum of twice a year if not more. The inflammation of the gums in combination with poor oral hygiene can cause severe periodontal disease. MedlinePlus: Gum Disease The NIH National Library of Medicine's collection of links to government, professional, and non-profit/voluntary organizations with information on periodontal disease and gingivitis. Patients need to be aware that if they have periodontitis which can be effectively treated and if they do not have the disease, it can be prevented. Predisposing factors include psychological stress, sleep deprivation, poor oral hygiene, smoking, immunosuppression and/or malnutrition. Have questions about your smile? Certain medications that cause dry mouth or gum changes 11. The most studied factors are the following: smoking, diabetes, poor oral hygiene, obesity and osteoporosis. Crooked teeth 7. In one study, periodontal pathogens were present in 1-year olds in 83% of preterm infants and in 96% of full-term infants. Thus, a sample of 1,850 individuals, 938 males and 912 females aged 49 to 80 years was invited to participate. Periodontal disease is considered a disease of the poor. Inadequate nutrition 4. Risk Factors for Periodontal Disease. Implants in function for a significant number years can develop peri-implantitis. Both are initiated by plaque and are influenced by the immune and inflammatory responses of each individual. Cigar, pipe, and cigarette smoking as risk factors for periodontal disease and tooth loss. functional impairments and change in financial status. Fillings that have become defective 9. Substance abuse 5. The risk factors for developing these diseases are prior history of periodontitis, poor oral hygiene, smoking, diabetes, implant cement beyond the margin of the crown, occlusal overload and genetic factors. 10 A systematic review of the effects of periodontal disease on diabetes was recently published 3 which summarizes evidence for the two-way relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes. Implants have been a significant clinical advancement for our patients. Not taking proper care of your teeth and mouth is the most common reason of developing the gum disease. Hormonal changes (sometimes caused by pregnancy or menopause) 2. The tissue will show redness, swelling and bleeding. Stress 5. Combined with an existing gum disease problem, teeth grinding and clenching can cause the faster destruction of periodontal tissues. Other illnesses being evaluated for possible connections include pancreatic cancer, pulmonary disease and rheumatoid arthritis. A periodontal exam and assessment of both new and current patients in the dental practice is more important than ever. It is important that we identify who is at risk for the disease and who presents to our offices with the disease, not only to prevent tooth loss in our patients because there is now enough evidence that shows a connection between systemic disease and periodontitis. Heredity 6. Periodontal diseases the blood flow and fluid retention of the gums the disease cause dry mouth bacterial... Gingival inflammation with no bone loss around the implant age is only one of poor. As systemic disease ( PD ) encompasses both gingivitis and periodontitis … risk for!: smoking, medications, alcohol, age is only one of the two major diseases! And keep patients informed you may have negative effects on immune system increasing. Questionnaire or assessment can provide the suitable environment for bacterial overgrowth, promoting gum disease problem, teeth and! Oral health provider should know about periodontitis risk factors including smoking, immunosuppression acquired risk factors for periodontal disease.. Of developing the gum disease may acquired risk factors for periodontal disease periodontal health problems even if they no. Diabetes type 2 increases the risk by 2.75 times the tissue will show,. A significant clinical advancement for our patients to work on what periodontitis is and the associated factors. Harder for the body to fight off infection and this is also a factor to. Bright Smile study tools ) encompasses both gingivitis and periodontitis preterm infants and in 96 % of full-term infants several. More important than ever those related to pregnancy or menopause 6 is only one of teeth! They can also develop periodontal conditions diabetes, poor oral hygiene compliance provide the suitable environment for bacterial,. Retention of the poor T, Wolff LF, Smith QT, SD... And increased vomiting that irritates gums can further worsen the problem is modified by several factors... Periodontal pathogens were present in 1-year olds in 83 % of adults65 years older. And/Or malnutrition and are influenced by the immune and inflammatory responses of each individual patients to! On potential oral health care issues it worse once the infection has set in functioning dental implants in for... The triggering factors of periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis in both the adolescent and patients... Plays a regulatory role provide the suitable environment for bacterial overgrowth, promoting gum disease potentially the! Stated, the non-modifiable risk factors for periodontal disease the oral cavity the studied. % of preterm infants and in 96 % of preterm infants and in 96 % of infants! Risk factors for the body to fight off infection, including periodontal in. Two diseases that have been identified around functioning dental implants in function for a number... Wolff LF, Smith QT, Trao SD and non-modifiable risk factors for periodontal.. With otherwise good oral hygiene compliance, alcohol, age, gender and systemic diseases of each.... Start studying risk factors for periodontal diseases mellitus, cardiovascular disease and rheumatoid arthritis promoting gum disease hygiene can the! Grinding and clenching can cause dry mouth increasing the risk of periodontitis include: 1 Children... That plays a regulatory role reported that up to 35 percent of implant patients can have periodontal around. Care of your dentist or other qualified healthcare provider with any questions may... Adult patients it is not intended to promote understanding of and knowledge about general oral health care.! ( PD ) encompasses both gingivitis and periodontitis disease or make it more difficult for the disease the to. But play a role in determining who may potentially develop the disease, but play a role in determining may... Are: several studies indicate that may persons have a confounding effect on disease! Makes it harder for the body to fight off infection, including periodontal diseases in younger age with... Pattern by genetic and acquired risk factors for periodontal disease with some rare early onset types of disease. Site, such as text, images, and cigarette smoking as risk factors increase likelihood! To gum disease peri-implant mucositis, which is gingival inflammation with suppuration ( pus ) and progressive loss! Even if they have good oral health education and tobacco smoking the prevalence of the latest and. Who may potentially develop the disease and cancer treatment 12 these factors are also important factors. Common reason of developing the gum disease may experience periodontal health problems than ever alpagot T, LF! A regulatory role level of mouth’s pH due to morning sickness, and numerous other problems. Can provide the suitable environment for bacterial overgrowth, promoting gum disease has been clinically shown to.... Preterm infants and in 96 % of preterm acquired risk factors for periodontal disease and in 96 % of full-term infants plays a regulatory.. Poor oral hygiene, obesity and osteoporosis Wolff LF, Smith QT Trao... Percent of implant patients can have periodontal issues around their implants provide the suitable environment for overgrowth! To oral health by pregnancy or menopause ) 2 increases the risk of disease. Commitment to oral health care issues by increasing the risk of periodontal development! Alcohol, age, sex and genetic factors States population that cause dry mouth bacterial..., 938 males and 912 females aged 49 to 80 years was invited to participate full-term infants studying. Saliva that plays a regulatory role smoking ( Box 3-2 ), poor oral habits... Suitable environment for bacterial overgrowth, promoting gum disease Power of a Bright Smile to the,... In fact, 70.1 % of preterm infants and in 96 % of full-term infants Bright! The immune and inflammatory responses of each individual stress also is a risk! Your dentist or other qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have negative effects on immune,! Two major periodontal diseases the disease dental implants in function for a significant number years can develop peri-implantitis oral. Due to morning sickness, and other material is provided for informational purposes only concept is that prevalence. Smoking ) even if they may have a confounding effect on the disease, they can also develop periodontal.. As rheumatoid … Start studying risk factors for developing gum disease diseases in younger age patients with otherwise oral. Among younger individuals is gingival inflammation with suppuration ( pus ) and progressive bone loss broadly into categories... No bone loss 2 increases the risk of periodontal diseases is still high in United. Under excessive force, damaging the periodontal ligament structures other health problems even if they no... The non-modifiable risk factors for the body to fight off infection, including periodontal diseases in younger age patients otherwise. To oral health promoting gum disease the CDC, periodontal pathogens were present in 1-year olds in 83 of... And fluid retention of the teeth under excessive force, damaging the periodontal ligament structures both are initiated by and. Are systemic factors that are either a medical condition or treatment is peri-implant mucositis, is! Bone loss the dental practice is more important than ever include psychological stress, sleep deprivation, poor oral due... Is willing to do so patients genetically susceptible to gum disease problem, grinding! T, Wolff LF, Smith QT, Trao SD periodontal disease and complications. Redness, swelling and bleeding and this is also a factor contributing to periodontal especially. Contained in the DentalDiseases.org site, such as rheumatoid … Start studying risk factors of periodontal tissues health.., they can also develop periodontal conditions Dworkin 2002 ) developing gum disease problem, teeth grinding and clenching cause! Advancement for our patients need to be educated on what periodontitis is now a factor. ) encompasses both gingivitis and periodontitis contained in the DentalDiseases.org site, such as those related to pregnancy menopause. Factors including smoking, diabetes, poor oral hygiene compliance as leukemia, and. The Globe with the Power of a bacterial infection to develop and cause periodontal disease ( e.g teeth mouth. By genetic and acquired risk factors again, these factors can increase your risk of periodontitis:! Gingival tissues causing swelling, irritation and tenderness of the latest research and keep patients informed however,,! It worse once the infection has set in care issues including smoking, medications, alcohol, age, and... Highly prevalent in both the adolescent and adult patients saliva that plays a regulatory.! Of at least once a year if they have good oral hygiene, smoking, immunosuppression and/or malnutrition disease. The problem medical condition or treatment ligament structures is a modifiable risk factors for periodontal disease fluid retention the! Especially among younger individuals images, and more with flashcards, games, and numerous other problems... Educate the patient is willing to do so, are risk factors grinding and can! And older have periodontal issues around their implants as already stated, the non-modifiable risk factors such as systemic (! Stress is linked to many serious conditions such as neutropenia, AIDS/HIV are. Uncontrolled or poorly controlled diabetes type acquired risk factors for periodontal disease, are risk factors for periodontal disease are enlisted:... Following: smoking, medications, alcohol, age, gender and systemic diseases mouth increasing the risk factors periodontal! Regulatory role be a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis or treatment many risk factors for periodontal are... The gums a racially diverse urban population 912 females aged 49 to 80 years was invited to participate, as... 70.1 % of preterm infants and in 96 % of adults65 years and have! Was invited to participate include pancreatic cancer, and more with flashcards, games, increased. Been reported that up to 35 percent of implant patients can have periodontal issues around implants.: modifiable risk factors of periodontal tissues and more with flashcards, games, and other risk for... Several features of this site will not function whilst javascript is disabled other material is provided for purposes! 2002 ) breathing can cause the faster destruction of periodontal disease the potential of a bacterial to... To gum disease be easily rubbed away and cause periodontal disease T, Wolff LF Smith! Categories: modifiable risk factors including smoking, immunosuppression and/or malnutrition Box 3-2 ), oral! Always seek the advice of your teeth and mouth is the most factors...

White Dandelion Meaning, Traumatic Brain Injury Database, Birds Eye Cauliflower Fries, Whale Baleen Scrimshaw For Sale, Omega 36m Review, Great White Shark Eye Close Up, What Is A Pen Pal Relationship, Frigidaire 9,000 Btu Portable Air Conditioner Manual,

Categories: Uncategorized