Advanced Techniques in Clinical Microbiology is an International Open Access peer reviewed publication that discusses current research on advancements in clinical techniques that help in understanding the challenges that human encounter when came in contact with microbes and how to mitigate them successfully. Sterilization is the destruction or removal of all microorganisms, including bacteria and their endospores, viruses, fungi, and prions. The general resistance of microbes to methods of sterilization ranges from bacterial endospores, with the highest resistance to sterilization, to vegetative cells, with moderate to least resistance. Moreover, results from the laboratory give basic understanding of microorganisms, their mechanisms of action, and their relationship with the environment. When handling cultures to prepare slides or to transfer organisms to another medium, the transfer loops and needles need to be sterilized by flame or incinerator before and after use (Figure 4.1). Infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of death worldwide. ... Read More, ABSTRACT Methylene blue milk and litmus milk are opaque liquids prepared from skim milk powder and dyes. Vacuum Filtration Suction filtration is a chemistry laboratory technique which allows for a greater rate of filtration. Often the sanitizer used is a compound such as soap or detergent. Autotrophs acquire carbon from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and heterotrophs obtain their carbon from organic compounds. Clinical microbiologists determine the nature of infectious disease and test the ability of various antibiotics to inhibit or kill the microorganisms. Most of the bacteria raised in laboratories for testing, identification, or experimentation grow on relatively simple media. To develop team working skills while reviewing a cutting edge topic in microbiology. This second edition provides an updated and comprehensive description of the ongoing evolution of molecular methods for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. Transmissible disease are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi. This category has the following 18 subcategories, out of 18 total. Microbiologists use five basic procedures to examine and characterize microbes: Inoculation, Incubation, Isolation, Inspection (observation), and Identificationâthe five âIâs.â To culture a microorganism a small sample, the inoculum, is introduced into a culture medium usually with a platinum wire probe streaked across its surface. The Microbiology Series includes five eLearning courses. It is widely used to grow certain streptococci and other pathogens. Several applications in everyday life and medicine do not require sterilization, disinfection, or antisepsis but need to reduce microorganisms in order to control possible infections or spoilage of substances. Laboratory techniques to accompany MB 540. Demonstrate acquisition of general knowledge about microorganisms and the ability to utilize and apply this information. These include enriched, selective, and differential media. Virology is the study of viruses and virus-like agents, including their taxonomy, disease-producing properties, cultivation and genetics. Vacuum equipment often requires special care to maintain. All disinfectants are by their nature potentially harmful, even toxic, to humans and animals. Course content The laboratory experiences are designed to engage and support student interest in microbiology as a topic, field of study, and career. Culture techniques were derived from the necessity to rapidly grow and accurately identify potential pathogens in order to treat individuals or take appropriate steps to prevent outbreaks of disease, epidemics, or pandemics. *Not all microbes need all of the nutrients listed; therefore, for optimal growth environments media with specific nutrients are necessary for specific microorganisms. Polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, is a laboratory technique used to make multiple copies of a segment of DNA. Beginning with pure sterile cultures, the key is to control the factors to which the cultures are subjected. ... Microbiology techniques (1 C, 66 P) Some are transmitted by bites from insects or animals. Several applications in everyday life and medicine do not require sterilization, disinfection, or antisepsis but need to reduce microorganisms in order to control possible infections or spoilage of substances. Dyes can be used as differential agents because many of them are pH indicators that change color in response to acid or base production by a specific microbe. When using dry heat or moist heat sterilization, physical, chemical, or biological indicators can be used to validate the desired results (Table 4.1). Growing Bacteria in a Lab: Experiments & Conditions : Discover basic bacteriology procedures, including how to use sterile technique, and get an overview of growth and isolation techniques in the lab. Rapid identification of microorganisms in the clinical microbiology laboratory can be of great value for selection of optimal patient management strategies for infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, mycobacteria, and parasites. Sterile Handling 1. Author(s): Deborah Steensels, Marie-Luce Delforge, Katrien Lagrou, Kurt Beuselinck and Isabel Montesinos, Background: Syndromic testing with a rapid and complete diagnostic panel would be extremely useful for routine respiratory testing. There are, however, some bacteria that are very picky eaters and require some extraordinary medium concoctions to raise them in the laboratory. In contrast, Salmonella does not give off acid and therefore remains in a natural off-white color. Reports of interpretation of these early microbiological laboratory observations led to the realization that life could exist in a single cell, followed in the 1800s by the cell doctrine. When handling cultures to prepare slides or to transfer organisms to another medium, the transfer loops and needles need to be sterilized by flame or incinerator before and after use (. In 1877, Pasteur and Joubert described microbial antagonism among bacteria and in 1899 the term âantibioticâ was coined. All Immunogens are antigens but all antigens are not immunogen. This article have been viewed 23058 times, Aseptic Technique in Laboratory Preparation and Analysis, Fixation and Staining for Electron Microscopy, Physiological/Biochemical Characteristics. In order to selectively identify specific microbes they must be grown in controlled laboratory environments. An example is blood agar, made by adding sterile sheep, horse, or rabbit blood to a sterile agar base. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are generally acquired by sexual contact like AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, chlamydia etc. The use of aseptic technique controls, limits, or prevents contamination by fomites. The conditions that most organisms are grown under vary from anaerobic to microaerophilic (5% oxygen) to capnophilic (âcarbon dioxide lovingâ) to simply aerobic and in temperatures ranging from 4Â° C to about 60Â° C. These medium types and incubation conditions can be found and maintained in most microbiology/clinical laboratories. A culture can be pureâcontaining one type of organism, or mixedâcontaining two or more species. In addition to the most resistant pathogens, endospores, other bacteria, and viruses are also highly resistant to many disinfectants. Clinical and molecular microbiology is a branch of microbiology which is concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. Course Syllabus. Agar is solid at room temperature and liquefies at the boiling temperature of water. The antigen may originate from within the body ("self-antigen") or from the external environment ("non-self"). It includes the study of certain classes of viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Antigen is a substance that is capable of stimulating an immune response. The size and configuration of autoclaves vary but the basic operation is same. After inoculation, growth occurs throughout the container. This can be accomplished by physical methods such as heat, radiation, and filtration, or by chemical methods. Substances that kill bacteria are bactericidal and those that interfere with cell growth and reproduction are bacteriostatic. Buy Membership for Basic Science Category to continue reading. The ideal disinfectant would result in complete sterilization without harming other forms of life. In other words, when working with microbial cultures, it is necessary to ensure that organisms are selectively introduced into the culture and that other environmental organisms do not contaminate it. Some pathogenic bacteria such as those in the genera Spiroplasma and Mycoplasma need specialized media for culturing. Some Some of the most important items of equipment are the following. When using dry heat or moist heat sterilization, physical, chemical, or biological indicators can be used to validate the desired results (Table 4.1). Polymerase chain reaction may be used for certain changes in a gene or chromosome, which may find and diagnose a genetic condition or a disease, such as cancer. A comparison of general, selective, and differential media is shown in Figure 4.4. Other media are available for special growth conditions of selected organisms. By learning more about STDs, one can learn ways to protect himself. Flaming is one of the physical methods of sterilization and must always be applied to the lips of test tubes and also of flasks whenever culture liquid is poured from one container to another, as in the case of pouring culture plates (Figure 4.2). Access to carbon, the essential component required for molecular life, is obtained in different ways by microorganisms. It is capable of binding to an antibody or to an antigen receptor on a T cell. This does not include bacterial endospores. â¢ Complex media or nonsynthetic media contain at least one component that cannot be chemically defined and thus the medium cannot be represented by an exact chemical formula. Fall 2019 Microbiology Course Schedule. In the 1600s, the newly created microscope yielded images of samples previously too small to be seen with the naked eye. Air currents must be controlled by closing laboratory doors and windows to prevent microbes on surfaces from becoming airborne and entering the cultures. Spiroplasma medium is a broth that contains more than 80 ingredients including various types of nutrients as well as antibiotics to suppress other possible competitors. Learn quiz microbiology lab techniques with free interactive flashcards. The conditions that most organisms are grown under vary from anaerobic to microaerophilic (5% oxygen) to capnophilic (âcarbon dioxide lovingâ) to simply aerobic and in temperatures ranging from 4Â° C to about 60Â° C. These medium types and incubation conditions can be found and maintained in most microbiology/clinical laboratories. Presterilized, disposable plastic loops are also available for inoculation. Chocolate agar is enriched with heat-treated blood, which turns brown and gives the medium the color and thus its name. Antigen helps in the production of antibodies. The acknowledgment of threats to outbreaks of pathogenic disease has brought a public awareness to the importance of compliance with proven preventative procedures and therapies. (Co-taught with MB 441). This text provides a series of laboratory exercises compatible with a one-semester undergraduate microbiology or bacteriology course with a three- or four-hour lab period that meets once or twice a week. To understand microbiology is to understand the laboratory; its basic equipment, how its equipment is used, the procedures carried out, andâimportantlyâthe preparation of and meaning of test results. MB 548. Aseptic technique is essential in the microbiology laboratory to prevent any contamination of laboratory personnel (see Chapter 5, Safety Issues), cultures, supplies, and equipment. Diagnostic microbiology involves the study of specimens taken from patients suspected of having infections. Bacteria are found practically everywhere including fingertips and bench tops and therefore it is essential to minimize contact with these surfaces. The causes of STDs are bacteria, parasites, yeast, and viruses. Microbiology and its basic techniques are related to some other sciences like plant physiology, genetics, evolution, molecular biology. Medical microbiology is the study of microbial pathogenesis and epidemiology and is related to the study of disease pathology and immunology. The normal growth conditions of other bacteria, such as extremophiles, may be challenging to reproduce in the average laboratory. It is recommended to wear gloves. This is an interactive multimedia textbook for basic Microbiology lab techniques. Escherichia coli, a bacterium common to the intestinal tract, produces acid when it metabolizes the lactose in the medium and develops red or pink colonies. It produces a humoral or cell-mediated immune response. ... Read More, All Published work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Copyright © 2020 All rights reserved. Choose from 500 different sets of quiz microbiology lab techniques flashcards on Quizlet. This procedure is a man-made version of DNA replication. â¢ Selective media inhibit the growth of selected organisms while allowing the growth of others. Background: Pediatric severe sepsis and septic shock remain a highly prevalent public health problem in critically ill children and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Wipe the outside of the containers, flasks, plates, and dishes with 70% ethanol before placing them in the cell culture hood. Complex media such as tryptic soy broth/agar, nutrient broth/agar, brain heart infusion, and blood agar are useful for growing a wide range of bacteria. Liquid media are water-based solutions that do not solidify at temperatures above freezing and flow freely in the containers when tilted. The normal growth conditions of other bacteria, such as extremophiles, may be challenging to reproduce in the average laboratory. It focuses on the following aspects of viruses: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit host cells for reproduction, their interaction with host organism physiology and immunity, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in research and therapy. Lab Performance Because this is a laboratory course, you must have a practical working knowledge of various techniques such as proper sterile techniques, the Gram staining, labeling your plates correctly, as well as cleaning up your laboratory area. Again, our most effective weapon against this potential disaster comes from the laboratory. Spring 2021 Microbiology Course Schedule. Media vary in nutrient content and consistency and can be classified according to their physical state, chemical composition, and functional type. Organic chemistry. 4. Unfortunately, ideal disinfectants as such do not exist and most of them only partially sterilize. Many common lab procedures require vacuum conditions, such as inert gas purging, cannulation, and solvent evaporation. It very small living thing which causes disease. Microbiology Laboratory Techniques Chapter Exam Instructions. 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