Taraxacum albidum var.albidum, Taraxacum albidum f.albidum, Taraxacum albiflorum, Taraxacum officinale var.albiflorum [42], T. officinale has a fossil record that goes back to glacial and interglacial times in Europe. Workmen in the furnaces and potteries of the industrial towns of the Midlands have frequent resource to many of the tonic Herb Beers, finding them cheaper and less intoxicating than ordinary beer, and Dandelion stout ranks as a favourite. The taxonomy of this genus has been complicated by the recognition of numerous species, subspecies and microspecies. The 14–25 mm (0.55–0.98 in) wide involucres are green to dark green or brownish-green, with the tips dark gray or purplish. Taraxacum are native to Eurasia, and have been widely introduced to North and South America and other continents. [51], Yellow dye colors can be obtained from the flowers but little color can be obtained from the roots of the plant. This group consists of dandelions that have a diploid set of chromosomes, and are sexually self-incompatible. They are an invasive species in some areas. In Berkshire and Worcestershire, the flowers are used in the preparation of a … 117. << Taraxacum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. The stems can be glabrous or sparsely covered with short hairs. [40], While not in bloom, this species is sometimes confused with others, such as Chondrilla juncea, that have similar basal rosettes of foliage. Taraxacum officinale grows from generally unbranched taproots and produces one to more than ten stems that are typically 5–40 cm (2.0–15.7 in) tall, but sometimes up to 70 cm (28 in) tall. Dandelion, weedy perennial herb of the genus Taraxacum of the family Asteraceae, native to Eurasia but widespread throughout much of temperate North America. [55] Rudenskaya et al. See also List of Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions. [29], Carl Linnaeus named the species Leontodon taraxacum in 1753. Taraxacum officinale F.H. The current genus name Taraxacum derives possibly from the Arabic Tharakhchakon,[10] or from the Greek Tarraxos. vulgare). PLEASE NOTE: A coloured Province or State means this species occurs somewhere in that Province/State. In the Asteraceae (formerly Compositae) the "flowers" are morphologically a composite flower head consisting of many tiny flowers called florets. Taraxacum, the old English word for dandelion, has its root in the Greek word taraxis, or trouble. Common Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower being visited by a flying insect (species unknown). The leaves (called dandelion greens) can be eaten cooked or raw in various forms, such as in soup or salad. The taproot can be boiled and eaten or dried and ground as a base for a hot drink. Plants have milky latex and the leaves are all basal; each flowering stem lacks bracts and has one single flower head. They are in the genus Taraxacum. [17] Usually the young leaves and unopened buds are eaten raw in salads, while older leaves are cooked. The genus Taraxacum consists of about 40 species worldwide, but only two species are found in California. Diploid dandelions have eight pairs of chromosomes, and meiosis is regular with normal pairing of homologous chromosomes at the metaphase I stage of meiosis. There are actually several species of dandelion. In contrast to the sexual diploids, the pairing of chromosomes at metaphase I in triploid apomicts is strongly reduced. [5][6][7][8] The name "blowball" has also been used.[9]. The fruits, called cypselae,[12] range in color from olive-green or olive-brown to straw-colored to grayish, they are oblanceoloid in shape and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) long with slender beaks. They are native to Eurasia and North America, and two species, T. officinale and T. erythrospermum, are found as weeds worldwide. [56], Species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae, Dandelion flower (left) and ripe fruits (right), 1897 illustration from Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen. A study conducted in 2009 noted 'promising' results regarding these diuretic properties, but that further studies would need to be conducted into the plant's efficacy. The original Latin name for dandelion which was given t this plant by Linnaeus in 1753 was "Leontodon taraxacum". The common dandelion is a well-known common weed of lawns, roadsides, and other disturbed places. Type species Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg. The leaves are 5-25 cm long, simple and basal, entire or lobed, forming a rosette above the central taproot. The radially symmetrical flowerhead of the common dandelion is bright yellow and singularly arranged atop the terminal shoot of the light-green, slender, pithy stem that exudes milky sap.The basal leaves are broad and long having irregular teeth and lobes. [33], T. officinale can serve as an indicator plant for soil potassium and calcium, as the plant favours soils deficient in the latter but rich in the former. It occurs in all 50 states of the US and most Canadian provinces. [32] It is now naturalized throughout North America, southern Africa, South America, New Zealand, Australia, and India. Originally from Europe, it occurs nearly worldwide. The specific name officinalis refers to its value as a medicinal herb, and is derived from the word opificina, later officina, meaning a workshop or pharmacy. The first group reproduces sexually, as do most seed plants. The silky pappi, which form the parachutes, are white to silver-white in color and around 6 mm wide. Taraxacum officinale L. (dandelion) is a vigorous weed in Europe with diploid sexual populations in the southern regions and partially overlapping populations of diploid sexuals and triploid or tetraploid apomicts in the central and northern regions. You'll get a fun kids wildlife magazine packed…, The Wildlife Trusts: Protecting Wildlife for the Future. The plants are adaptable to most soils and the seeds are not dependent on cold temperatures before they will germinate but they need to be within the top 2.5 cm (1 in) of soil.[24]. Taraxacum officinale is found as a weed throughout California and T. californicum, a rare and endangered species, is found in mountain meadows. Family: ASTERACEAE Genus: Taraxacum Species: Common Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Alternative Names: Taraxacum vulgare Common Dandelion Species Images Common Dandelion Species Description [53][verification needed], The Latin specific epithet officinale refers to the Latin word for 'medicinal' or 'of the apothecaries'. [50], Dandelion has been used in traditional medicine in Europe, North America, and China. The plant grows year round but goes dormant in areas that experience a cold winter. Genus. | Alaska Natural Heritage Program", "The biology of Canadian weeds. The human body produces free radicals naturally, but they cause harm by accelerating aging or the progression of certain diseases. Among animals, for example, the species of horses and zebras form the genus Equus, whereas the hawksbill sea turtle is the only member of the genus Eretmochelys. [52], Taraxacum is derived from the Arabic word tarakhshagog (or tarakhshaqūn) for a bitter herb. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion[4] (often simply called "dandelion"), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). The seedhead is shown below it. It is often thought of as a 'weed' of grassy places. This species is a somewhat prolific seed producer, with 54 to 172 seeds produced per head, and a single plant can produce more than 5,000 seeds a year. It is found in virtually every kind of habitat, from openings in deep woods to cultivated fields, from rocky hillsides to fertile gardens and lawns. The common dandelion is well known for its yellow flower heads that turn into round balls of silver-tufted fruits that disperse in the wind. The dried Dandelion leaves are also employed as an ingredient in many digestive or diet drinks and herb beers. Ground roasted dandelion root can be used as a non-caffeinated coffee substitute. Types of Dandelions: Yellow The common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) sports an iconic bright-yellow flower and grows in USDA hardiness zones 3 through 10. Learn about the uses and possible side effects of dandelion here. The common dandelion is a most familiar flower: counting down the 'clock', while blowing the fluffy seeds from its head, is a favourite childhood game. [37] When released, the seeds can be spread by the wind up to several hundred meters from their source. dandelion. The most familiar species is T. officinale. The stems can be tinted purplish, they are upright or lax, and produce flower heads that are held as tall or taller than the foliage. These balls are usually called "clocks" in both British and American English. [36] The seeds remain viable in the seed bank for many years, with one study showing germination after nine years. [citation needed]. Alan Punton/A to Z Botanical Collection. in height. However pairing is still sufficient to allow some recombination between homologous chromosomes. [30], Taraxacum officinale is native to Europe and Asia,[31] and was originally imported to America as a food crop. [44] The flowers are used to make dandelion wine,[45] the greens are used in salads, the roots have been used to make a coffee substitute (when baked and ground into powder) and the plant was used by Native Americans as a food and medicine. Gibbons, E. Stalking the Wild Asparagus. 1962. [38][39] Honey bees have not been shown to lower their pollination activity on nearby fruit crops when foraging on dandelions. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. As an adjective dandelion The yellow flower heads lack receptacle bracts and all the flowers, which are called florets, are ligulate and bisexual. As nouns the difference between dandelion and blowball is that dandelion is (countable) any of the several species of plant in the genus taraxacum'', characterised yellow flower heads and notched, broad-ended leaves, especially the common dandelion (''taraxacum officinale ) while blowball is the downy seed head of a dandelion, a dandelion clock. Wigg", "Taraxacum campylodes G.E.Haglund — The Plant List", "Definition of "blowball" - Collins English Dictionary", "dandelion clock - Definition from Longman English Dictionary Online", "Clock dictionary definition - clock defined", "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers", "Taraxacum officinale in Flora of North America @", "Ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis: insights from, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, "ITIS Standard Report Page: Taraxacum officinale", "PLANTS Profile for Taraxacum officinale ssp. Common dandelion is the most common broadleaf weed in lawns, golf courses, athletic fields and other turfgrass areas. Dandelions Lyrics: Maybe it's the way you say my name / Maybe it's the way you play your game / But it's so good, I've never known anybody like you / But it's so good, I've never dreamed of nobody Our commitment to Equality, Diversity & Inclusion (EDI), Different types of protected wildlife sites. The most common dandelion is Taraxacum officinale. The common name Dandelion is given to members of the genus Taraxacum, a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. Phylum: Magnoliophyta - Class: Equisetopsida - Order: Asterales - Family: Asteraceae. Taraxacum F.H. [53] It may be related to the Greek word ταρασσω (tarasso) meaning to disturb. It grows in temperate regions of the world, in lawns, on roadsides, on disturbed banks and shores of waterways, and other areas with moist soils. The leaves are high in beta-carotene, vitamin C and iron. [25], The second group consists of polyploid (mostly triploid) apomicts, meaning that both a viable embryo as well as a functional endosperm is formed without prior fertilization. While most people consider dandelions to be pesky weeds in the garden, they also offer a variety of health benefits. Dandelions have at least two look-a-likes in our area, which can be considered second cousins once, maybe twice, removed from the common dandelion (or what I like to call true dandelion), which is naturalized from Europe. The common name dandelion from French dent-de-lion, meaning – common dandelion. Dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale ). It is estimated that more than 97,000,000 seeds/hectare could be produced yearly by a dense stand of dandelions. The genus is taxonomically very complex, with numerous macrospecies, and polyploidy is also common; over 250 species have been recorded in the British Isles alone (Richards 1972). It is often thought of as a 'weed' of grassy places. 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