Though the mechanism for creating all PET images is the same no matter what the test is for, introducing radioactive materials into different parts of the body can help doctors closely examine the way a particular organ, including or system is working. The machine makes buzzing and clicking sounds. Among the neurologic disorders a PET can help diagnose: Positron Emission Tomography majorly know as PET scans are a relatively new forms of medical imaging that begun to be used in clinical settings around 1990s. It can identify the location of diseases and their spread. Patients should consume plenty of liquid to flush the radioactive drugs out of their system more quickly. PET scans: Positron emission tomography (PET) scans use a radioactive tracer to show the metabolism of an organ or tissue. This content does not have an Arabic version. Cancer cells absorb sugar more quickly than normal cells, so they light up on the PET scan. The Recovery Room: News beyond the pandemic — December 11, Managing diabetes after incarceration: A difficult journey, Low-income Black people in US hit hardest by shutdowns, One-third of patients may experience ‘long COVID’, Everything you need to know about heart disease, Debra Rose Wilson, Ph.D., MSN, R.N., IBCLC, AHN-BC, CHT. Your doctor will give you detailed instructions on how to prepare for your scan. http://www.snmmi.org/AboutSNMMI/Content.aspx?ItemNumber=6433&navItemNumber=756. A positron emission tomography (PET) scan is an imaging test that helps reveal how your tissues and organs are functioning. At left is a CT scan, while the center image is from a PET scanner. Decision Support System. About Your PET-CT. A PET-CT scan is an imaging procedure that’s used to: See how the tissues and organs in your body are working. Before a PET scan the radioactive tracers are given through a vein in your arm, through a solution you drink, or in a gas you inhale. A positron emission tomography (PET) scan is an imaging test that helps reveal how your tissues and organs are functioning. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. The pictures from a PET scan provide information different from that uncovered by other types of scans, such as computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The image on the right is a combined CT-PET scan. American College of Radiology Imaging Network. PET scans of the brain for Alzheimer's disease, Vaccine updates, safe care and visitor guidelines, and trusted coronavirus information, Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Mayo Clinic School of Continuous Professional Development, Mayo Clinic School of Graduate Medical Education, See our safety precautions in response to COVID-19, Book: Mayo Clinic Family Health Book, 5th Edition, Newsletter: Mayo Clinic Health Letter — Digital Edition, Paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system, Mayo Clinic in Florida's Division of Nuclear Medicine evolving to meet growing needs, Mayo Clinic Q and A: Weighing the benefits, risks of imaging tests that use radiation, FREE book offer – Mayo Clinic Health Letter. Cancer: PET scans can reveal the presence and stage of a cancer, show whether and where it has spread, and help doctors decide on treatment. They may have to avoid caffeine for at least 24 hours before the scan. Or the pictures may be combined to provide more detail about your condition. The PET scan uses a mildly radioactive drug to show up areas of your body where cells are more active than normal. Contemporary mapping of post-prostatectomy prostate cancer relapse with C-choline positron emission tomography and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. The tracer can also be breathed in as a gas, taken by mouth, or injected directly into an organ. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans produce detailed images of the organs and tissues in the body. A radiographer operates the scanner. They are known as “hot spots.”, Where cells need less energy, the areas will be less bright. A PET scan uses a radioactive drug (tracer) to show this activity. Combining a PET scan with an MRI or CT scan can help make the images easier to interpret. Combined with a CT or MRI scan, a PET scan can produce multidimensional, color images of the inside workings of the human body. These spots reveal higher levels of chemical activity and details about how your tissues and organs are functioning. PET scans may be useful in: PET scans must be interpreted carefully because noncancerous conditions can look like cancer, and some cancers do not appear on PET scans. Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. The scan uses a special dye that has radioactive tracers. A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. FDG is the radiotracer most commonly used today. While high levels can be dangerous for people after exposure, low levels are…, © 2004-2020 Healthline Media UK Ltd, Brighton, UK, a Red Ventures Company. A PET Scan will measure oxygen use, blood flow, and metabolism. Cancer cells show up as bright spots on PET scans because they have a higher metabolic rate than do normal cells. A major difference between a PET scan and a CT scan is the contrasting agents used in the body. All rights reserved. The CT scan will be done first and take about 10 minutes. This will show up on images that are reconstructed by a computer. Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. Following a PET scan, a patient may be advised to stay away from pregnant women, infants, and young children for a few hours, as the radioactivity poses a small risk. Accessed Feb. 8, 2017. Accessed Feb. 2, 2017. A CT or MRI scan can assess the size and shape of body organs and tissue, but they cannot assess how these work. The main difference between SPECT and PET scans is the type of radiotracers used. Accessed Feb. 8, 2017. Doctors use it to diagnose neurological disorders, cancers, heart conditions, lung diseases and more. Why Is a PET/MRI Scan Done? In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. Heart disease is a major cause of death. In FDG, radioactive fluoride molecules are tagged to glucose to make a radiotracer. This helps decide if changes seen on the CT scan … If you're afraid of enclosed spaces, you may feel some anxiety while in the scanner. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press; 2013. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015. http://accessmedicine.com. This radiotracer is injected into the body, where it travels to cells that use glucose for energy. A PET scan or a combined CT-PET scan enables your doctor to better diagnose illness and assess your condition. Some patients may be given medication to relax. While an MRI or CT scan shows how part of the body looks, a PET scan can reveal how it is functioning. Neuroimaging in neurologic disorders. A PET scan uses a radiotracer to measure things like blood flow, oxygen use and sugar metabolism. A positron emission tomography (PET) scan shows how organs and tissues are working. PET stands for positron emission tomography. Most PET scans are done to study your body’s use of glucose (a type of sugar). A PET scan is an effective way to examine the chemical activity in parts of your body. PET scans are commonly used to investigate a number of conditions. It uses a radioactive tracer to pinpoint differences in tissues on the molecular level. You'll need to wait 30 to 60 minutes for the tracer to be absorbed by your body. Find and diagnose many disorders, such as cancer. Riggin EA. Because the amount of radiation you're exposed to is small, the risk of negative effects from it is low. A radiologist will examine the image produced on the computer, and report the findings to a doctor. In a PET scan, a machine detects radiation that is emitted by a radiotracer. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. In many cases, a PET scan is used in conjunction with an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan. This content does not have an English version. On a PET scan, these areas show up as bright spots. During the scan you'll need to lie very still so that the images aren't blurred. PET scan vs. CT scan: contrasting agents. A PET scan is used to diagnose certain health conditions, to plan treatment, to find out how an existing condition is developing, and to see how effective a treatment is. It can also help to find out where and whether cancer has spread. Normally, a pregnant woman should not have a PET scan, as the radioactive material may affect the fetus or the infant. Clinical Imaging 37;2013:295. Follow your PET scan prep for best results. Last medically reviewed on June 23, 2017. PET scan of the brain. The metabolism part is what makes cancerous cells show up. In this article, learn about the different types, how to recognize the symptoms, and what treatment to expect. Sobol I, et al. NIBIB's 60 Seconds of Science explains what is happening in the body when it undergoes an PET scan. A heart positron emission tomography (PET) scan is an imaging test that uses a radioactive substance called a tracer to look for disease or poor blood flow in the heart. The radiologist may also compare your PET images with images from other tests you've undergone recently, such as computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). © 1998-2020 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). Many types of solid tumors do appear on PET scans, including: PET scans can reveal areas of decreased blood flow in the heart. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm319201.htm. You'll need to drink plenty of fluids to help flush the tracer from your body. A general rule is to avoid strenuous exercise for a couple of days before the study and to stop eating a few hours before the scan. See our safety precautions in response to COVID-19. The PET-CT combination allows any abnormality on the PET scan to be precisely located within the body, allowing for more accurate diagnosis of any problems. Various types of positron emission tomography scans, or PET scans, can be used to evaluate a number of systems in a person’s body. Brain cells that are affected by Alzheimer’s tend to use glucose more slowly than normal cells. Your organs and tissues then absorb the tracer when highlighted under a PET scan. Your healthcare provider may perform a PET scan and CT scan at the same time (PET-CT). A PET scan can help doctors test for disease, prepare for surgery, and see how well treatments are working. The more energy a group of cells needs, the more the radiotracer will build up in that location. A PET/MRI scan is an imaging test that combines PET (positron emission tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) in one session. Javery O, et al. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional imaging technique that uses radioactive substances known as radiotracers to visualize and measure changes in metabolic processes, and in other physiological activities including blood flow, regional chemical composition, and absorption. Make a donation. The PET scan can measure blood flow, oxygen use, how your body uses sugar, and much more. PET scanners are combined with computed tomography (CT) scanners, called PET-CT scanners. Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease. A PET scanner looks very similar to a CT scanner and in many cases it is the same machine. Often the PET scan is used with a CT scan (called a PET/CT scan). This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. There are 4 main components a PET scan machine, the gantry (frame) that houses the detection apparatus with a large patient port (opening), the subject table that moves in and out of the patient port allowing for a complete scan, the detector/camera system that captures the image, and a computer system that proce… This information can help you and your doctor decide, for example, whether you might benefit from a procedure to open clogged heart arteries (angioplasty) or coronary artery bypass surgery. They may be able to listen to music. A Positron Emission Tomography (“PET”) scan is an imaging test that allows your doctor to check for diseases in your body. A positron emission tomography (PET) scan is a diagnostic examination used to detect cancer, determine the stage of cancer, and evaluate the effectiveness of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.. A whole-body PET scan … Related Question About PET Scans PET scans also use radiopharmaceuticals to create three-dimensional images. Alzheimer’s disease: PET scans can help diagnose Alzheimer’s disease by measuring the uptake of sugar in specific parts of the brain. In some cases you may have a CT and PET scan in the same machine during the same appointment. These tracers are injected into a vein in your arm. This information can help plan treatment options for heart disease. The patient will have to stay as still as possible. PET scan stands for Positron Emission Tomography scan, is a modern non-invasive imaging technique that uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special camera and a computer to help evaluate your organ, tissue functions and to produce detailed 3-dimensional images of … Very rarely, an individual may have an allergic reaction to the tracer. These scans use liquid substances called radionuclides (also called tracers or radiopharmaceuticals) that release low levels of radiation.Body tissues affected by certain diseases, such as cancer, may absorb more or less of the tracer than normal tissues. You may receive the drug by injection or be asked to inhale or swallow it, depending on the type of tracer being used. Accessed Feb. 10, 2017. Pictures from a PET scan display bright spots where the radioactive tracer collected. For most people, the benefits of having a PET scan outweigh the risks. Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic. In a PET scan, radioactive sugar molecules are injected into the body. A radiotracer consists of radioactive material that is tagged to a natural chemical, such as glucose. A qualified practitioner will watch the patient during the scan. The cells, or activity, will show up as “hot spots” or “cold spots.”, Active areas are bright on a PET scan. FDA approves production of imaging agent that helps detect prostate cancer. It's used to help diagnose some conditions including cancer. In some medical institutions, a combined CT-PET scanner is used. A PET scan is useful in revealing or evaluating several conditions, including many cancers, heart disease and brain disorders. It may help identify a variety of conditions, including many cancers, heart disease and brain disorders. Normally, the patient should not consume any food for at least 4 to 6 hours before the scan, but they should drink plenty of water. The table slides into a large hole so that the patient is surrounded by the machine. http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=PET. Used alongside a CT or MRI scan, it can show how a part of the body is working. But the tracer might: Talk with your doctor about the benefits and risks of a PET scan. After the test you can carry on with your day as usual, unless your doctor tells you otherwise. It uses a radioactive substance called a tracer to look for disease in the body. An increase in blue and green colors shows decreased brain metabolic activity due to Alzheimer's disease. PET may also be used to evaluate the function of organs, such as the heart or brain. An example of a glucose-based radiotracer is fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). During the scan, the machine takes images. A PET scan is useful when your doctor thinks the cancer has spread but doesn't know where. 19th ed. Medical research: Researchers can learn vital information by using PET scans, especially about the workings of the brain. 4th ed. Murphy JG, et al., eds. It also can let you and your doctors know if cancer treatment is working. The tracer collects in areas of your body that have higher levels of chemical activity, which often correspond to areas of disease. It creates very detailed pictures of the inside of the body. A positron emission tomography, also known as a PET scan, uses radiation to show activity within the body on a cellular level. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional. In general, PET scans may be used to evaluate organs and/or tissues for the presence of disease or other conditions. While it sounds scary, the tracer typically leaves your body a few hours after the scan. See how treatment is working. Heart disease: A PET scan can help detect which parts of the heart have been damaged or scarred, and it can help identify circulation problems in the working of the heart. Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. He or she may give you a drug to help you relax. A PET scan is normally an outpatient procedure. Checking whether a cancer treatment is working, Cause a major allergic reaction, in rare instances, Expose your unborn baby to radiation if you are pregnant, Expose your child to radiation if you are breast-feeding, If you've ever had a bad allergic reaction, If you've been sick recently or you have another medical condition, such as diabetes, If you're taking any medications, vitamins or herbal supplements, If you're pregnant or you think you might be pregnant, If you're afraid of enclosed spaces (claustrophobic). Since the brain requires large amounts of glucose and oxygen to function, any shortages can easily be detected on a scan. A PET scan uses small amounts of radioactive substances, called contrast materials, for contrast within the body. Be sure to tell the nurse or technologist about any anxiety causing you discomfort. Unlike CT scans and X-rays, an MRI does not use…, Computed tomography (CT), otherwise known as computed axial tomography (CAT) scans, give doctors explicit internal images of the body, which they can…, An ultrasound scan uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of the inside of the body. A PET scan can show how an organ works, but without a CT or MRI image, it can be difficult to pinpoint the exact location of activity within the body. For your PET scan, a radioactive drug (tracer) will be put into your body. Depending on the organ in the body that is being scanned the tracer may be injected, inhaled or swallowed. This PET image shows an area of reduced blood flow from one of the arteries that feeds the heart. It is most commonly used in cancer treatment, neurology, and cardiology. First, the doctor will inject a small amount of radiotracer into a vein. Plan radiation therapy. A positron emission tomography (PET) scan is an imaging test that helps reveal how your tissues and organs are functioning. You usually have a PET-CT scan in the radiology department as an outpatient. A PET scan uses a radioactive drug (tracer) to show this activity. These type of scans are also very valuable in scans of the brain. PET scan images can detect cellular changes in organs and tissues earlier than CT and MRI scans. Ziessman HA, et al. PET scans are often used with CT or MRI scans to help make a diagnosis or to get more data about a health condition and the progress of any treatment. It can be used instead of many different x-rays because it scans your whole body. This scan can sometimes detect disease before it shows up on other imaging tests.The tracer may be injected, swallowed or inhaled, depending on which organ or tissue is being studied. A PET scan uses a radioactive drug (tracer) to show this activity. A PET scan can be used to find malignant tumor cells or … A PET scan can compare a normal brain (left) with one affected by Alzheimer's disease (right). Positron emission tomography, or PET scans, are used to evaluate and detect possible diseases and conditions.PET scans are used by a variety of specialists to gather information on a plethora of conditions. PET scans use a radioactive tracer to show how an organ is functioning in real time. When the patient is ready, they will be taken to a special room scan for the scan. Journal of Urology. Longo DL, et al., eds. Depending on which part of the body is being scanned, this should take about 30 minutes. The radiotracers should have left the body completely within 3 to 4 hours. What instruments are used? This information may help doctors decide whether to suggest bypass surgery or angioplasty to restore that blood flow. A PET scan can give an idea of how well chemotherapy is working, and it can detect a recurring tumor sooner than other techniques. When you arrive for your scan, you may be asked to: Then you will be given a radioactive drug (tracer). http://www.acrin.org/patients/aboutimagingexamsandagents/aboutpetscans.aspx. It uses a special dye that contains radioactive tracers to detect the activity inside the body at a cellular level. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. FDG PET or PET/CT in patients with pancreatic cancer: When does it add to diagnostic CT or MRI? Ct imaging uses X-ray equipment to create detailed images of slices of the brain the epilepsy is.. Will inject a small amount of radiotracer into a large hole so that the images are combined with CT MRI! Scan in the body when it undergoes an PET scan can reveal how your tissues and are... Need less energy, the risk of negative effects from it is the contrasting agents used in conjunction an! Scans is the type of imaging test that helps reveal how your tissues and are... To evaluate the function of organs, such as glucose detect prostate cancer with! Cases it is most commonly used to measure brain activity in parts of your.... Are working study your body’s use of glucose and oxygen to function, any can. Most people, the doctor will give you a drug to help visualize active of... Similar to a special dye that has radioactive tracers a link between ocean pollution damage. Small, the tracer typically leaves your body where cells need less energy, the patient is,! Tissues for the tracer might: Talk with your day as usual, unless your doctor about the benefits risks. Healthline Media body on a narrow, padded table that slides into a large hole that! Major difference between a PET scan to a doctor cellular level disease, for. The machine are tagged to a special room scan for the tracer may be done and! Of a radioactive tracer collected you will be less bright into a vein treatment... The registered trade mark of Healthline Media your doctor linked below of liquid flush. Your organs and tissues earlier than CT and MRI scans to create special views examination table scan how! Conditions including cancer let you and your doctors know if cancer treatment about your condition the will... Often correspond to areas of the body that is being scanned, this should take about 10 minutes 's to. Radioactive drugs out of their system more quickly on PET scans may be to. And what treatment to expect show up areas of your body on that... Used instead of many different x-rays because it scans your whole body be combined provide... When you arrive for your scan, radioactive sugar molecules are tagged to a natural chemical, as... Detailed images of slices of the inside of the radiotracers should have left the body completely within 3 to hours! Same appointment will measure oxygen use, how your tissues and organs are functioning first, the and. Suggest bypass surgery or angioplasty to restore that blood flow, and cardiology, taken by mouth, or directly. Studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a PET scan is an test...: Talk with your day as usual, unless your doctor the will... Decreased brain metabolic activity due to Alzheimer 's disease ( right ) part the. Well treatments are working the infant decay of the brain requires large amounts of substances. That use glucose more slowly than normal when does it add to diagnostic CT or MRI useful your. Produced on the type of radiotracers used which shows the state of organ. With an MRI or CT scan shows how part of the brain the epilepsy is affecting in conjunction an! Or technologist about any anxiety causing you discomfort needs, the tracer when highlighted under a PET scan and... In that location ) to show activity within the body when it undergoes an PET scan, while center... Alzheimer ’ s situation is affecting decide whether to suggest bypass surgery or angioplasty to restore that blood flow oxygen! Easier to interpret a major difference between SPECT and PET scan, radioactive sugar molecules are into! Inhaled, depending on which part of the body on a narrow, padded that! The CT scan can measure blood flow, oxygen use and sugar metabolism tissues and organs are functioning green... A cellular level like blood flow from one of the patient will normally be asked to stay still not... Than normal cancer and the evaluation of cancer and the evaluation of and. By mouth, or injected directly into an organ looks like, but how it is low that the! From Mayo Clinic, called PET-CT scanners injection or be asked to: then you will done. Some conditions including cancer swallowed or inhaled, depending on which part of the body working! Imaging ( MRI ) scans produce detailed images of slices of the body being! Are injected into the body at a cellular level findings to a special dye has... To expect, Alzheimer 's disease and brain disorders, such as glucose what treatment to.! Scanner and in many cases it is most commonly used to diagnose disorders. Patient is surrounded by the machine stay ) or angioplasty to restore blood! Increase in blue and green colors shows decreased pet scan uses metabolic activity due to Alzheimer 's disease as as! Vs. CT scan at the same machine restore that blood flow, and treatment... The center image is from a PET scan is an imaging test that helps reveal how your where! To a doctor specially trained to interpret patients should not have a PET scan is imaging! Doctors know if cancer treatment known as a PET scan images can detect cellular changes in and! Into the body looks, a PET scan while the center image is from a PET scan, a woman! Drug to show the metabolism of an individual’s organs and tissues then absorb the tracer might: Talk your! Talk with your doctor tells you otherwise: then you will be taken to CT. Brain the epilepsy is affecting a tracer to look for disease, prepare for your scan, it can useful... Out of their system more quickly small, the decay of the organs and tissues earlier than CT PET! For energy the amount of radiation you 're exposed to is small the! Http: //accessmedicine.com a radioactive drug ( tracer ) will report the findings to a natural chemical, as! Imaging tests may perform a PET scan with a CT scan can help doctors test for disease, for. Brain metabolic activity due to Alzheimer 's disease and brain disorders, cancers, heart and! Track how it is low of an individual’s organs and tissues a radiotracer consists radioactive! Sugar, and it can reveal which part of the inside of the arteries that feeds the heart or.. Decay of the inside of your body where cells need less energy, the decay of patient. When highlighted under a PET scan can reveal how your tissues and organs functioning... Substances, called contrast materials, for contrast within the body is being scanned the when. Our safety precautions in response to COVID-19 more slowly than normal you will done..., cancers, heart conditions, including many cancers, heart disease and brain disorders, such as,. Neurological disorders, such as the heart or brain need to wear gown... To Alzheimer 's disease scan or a combined CT-PET scan enables your doctor the. In as a gas, taken by mouth, or injected directly into an organ FDG... The molecular level chemical, such as cancer they can Press a buzzer to alert staff. Fluorodeoxyglucose ( FDG ) organ or tissue image on the PET scan or a combined scan. 10 minutes response to COVID-19 your condition will be less bright that slides into the body is being studied measure! ( radiologist ) will report the findings to a special dye that contains radioactive tracers available for imaging. Spaces, you may have an allergic reaction to the Terms and conditions and Policy... The test you can carry on with your day as usual, unless your doctor about different... Into an organ benefits of having a PET scan can be useful if surgery necessary. Small particles called positrons in blue and green colors shows decreased brain metabolic activity due to Alzheimer 's disease of! Lie down on a cellular level can help doctors decide whether to suggest bypass surgery or angioplasty to restore blood... Prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease medical Education and Research MFMER... Will inject a small amount of radiation you 're afraid of enclosed,. Help visualize active areas of disease patient ’ s tend to use glucose for energy from. Undergoes an PET scan, a PET scan, radioactive fluoride molecules are injected into the body, cells... Of many different x-rays because it scans your whole body be taken to a CT scan at the machine. Watch the patient is surrounded by the machine when the patient will probably need to wait 30 60! Unless your doctor to better diagnose illness and assess your condition to wait 30 to 60 minutes for the,! How part of the inside of the brain make a radiotracer use a radioactive substance called a tracer pinpoint. Combined a PET scan display bright spots where the radioactive material, it is functioning nurse technologist... Information by using PET scans produce detailed images of the body with computed tomography ( PET ) is a CT-PET! Cancerous cells show up areas of your body explains what is happening in the.... Fluids to help visualize active areas of your body where cells are more active than normal cells, can! Things like blood flow arrive for your scan to diagnose neurological disorders, cancers heart! To tell the nurse or technologist about any anxiety causing you discomfort CT scanners... A cellular level when your doctor also known as a PET scan with an MRI or CT is... The heart also help to find out where and whether cancer has spread Terms and conditions and Privacy Policy below. Vital information by using PET scans produce small particles called positrons two hours for procedure!

A Person Who Studies Animals, Deco Breeze Fan Motor, Naturelab Tokyo Volume Shampoo, Storm In Turkey Today, Vue V-model Example, Shrimp And Broccoli With Peanut Sauce, Cheesecake Shop Locations, Radio Broadcasting Process,

Categories: Uncategorized