0000103226 00000 n 0000104018 00000 n 5. 0000078073 00000 n 0000074482 00000 n 0000024230 00000 n 0000081994 00000 n benign and malignant neoplasms can be induced by chemical and physical agents (carcinogens), certain viruses can also act as. 0000085346 00000 n Environmental Sanitation In Community Health Nursing Ppt Assessment Data Goals & Outcome #Community Health Nursing Care Plan #Trailer Statement #1 Statement #2 Resources Ackley, B. 0000061987 00000 n 0000076069 00000 n 0000084829 00000 n 0000095288 00000 n – 2. Some of the chemical mutagens and mutagenesis are given in Table 9.3, and described below: i. 0000058233 00000 n 0000112676 00000 n 0000105409 00000 n 2. 0000064568 00000 n 0000016658 00000 n 0000089246 00000 n 0000112325 00000 n 0000075636 00000 n 0000092108 00000 n 0000028691 00000 n Occupational skin diseases can be caused by chemical agents, mechanical trauma, physical … 0000079638 00000 n 0000108914 00000 n 0000078663 00000 n 0000077396 00000 n 0000099620 00000 n Occupational skin diseases. 0000078212 00000 n 0000064162 00000 n 0000080617 00000 n 0000099566 00000 n 0000098536 00000 n � $��2p��u4`�X0�������,b��˔�����A���C��������.�eLPp��8�f"Cd�v�B����Ώ�#v�ٹ���g�t�p;051l`m�``L����pMx����6�N��]���@�oV� ��8,;�A�`� ]�޵������c`xd�;� ��J���������' Defects in DNA repair capacity are associated with a high risk of cancer. 0000077195 00000 n 0000072126 00000 n 0000083514 00000 n 0000024717 00000 n 0000096359 00000 n 0000096175 00000 n 0000082644 00000 n 0000093542 00000 n 0000076873 00000 n Repeated local injury (e.g., wounding) or recurring irritation (e.g., chronic inflammation) to a part of the body are other examples of potential physical carcinogens. 0000109881 00000 n 0000017102 00000 n 0000094350 00000 n 0000081545 00000 n 0000074094 00000 n 0000094000 00000 n 0000104390 00000 n 0000017213 00000 n Prostate (1.28 million cases) 5. 0000091560 00000 n 0000067741 00000 n 0000086817 00000 n 0000103442 00000 n 0000098102 00000 n 0000073521 00000 n 0000097506 00000 n ���ˡcJj�'D\��Vub�N����Sz��F楶���TP�#M�9�R��y�����#�(�UYs�ơ�>� "�а7sZУ�u 1J�� g�9�.b�ҩ��pj�6��Ր��o��c�%���O�{{�n5(c���n�������� �{x/�x�b�lW8F#Msb��)�~���!#��I�8��n3�/Xd7 �y���nQѝ�3b[���uV�>��p�(1[��F��YgTwE� k�3�X1#��g��>�����-yj�")�Izz^B_�M���ʛ^ia�92lV��֏� �-ˈ���x����/�x@���5�E��_���o��s}/���>��f����ױG���X��o��F?�o ��c��C�A#|���M_�\H΀�O��[�/�?�.�Wq���eI�1�}*%��(9m8fu����¾Q:�UFs\We~e����\Ԅy4����U����¬�5po�y!w^�.�IS�6�����U0G�9مҾ�aEŵ����.>!��ä�y%\��$^��Z�C��N ��k$vl�� :tt��[M���cJ?�M5�^����O�[7�uW�$�ߏ�U���W� �{M 0000061639 00000 n 0000018579 00000 n 0000082401 00000 n 0000060920 00000 n 0000075786 00000 n Liver (782 000 deaths) 5. 0000089413 00000 n 0000108306 00000 n They include metals such as cobalt and nickel and crystals such as silica. 0000083674 00000 n 0000071844 00000 n %PDF-1.4 %���� 0000108556 00000 n 0000059544 00000 n The Ames test is a widely used test to screen chemicals used in foods or medications for mutagenic potential. Lung (1.76 million deaths) 2. 0000090686 00000 n 0000107129 00000 n Carcinogens that do not directly damage DNA include substances that accelerate cell division, thereby leaving less opportunity for cell to repair induced mutations, or errors in replication. 0000078266 00000 n 0000061352 00000 n 0000108110 00000 n 0000060616 00000 n 0000101987 00000 n 0000089037 00000 n 0000067619 00000 n 0000104795 00000 n 0000064888 00000 n 0000107286 00000 n 0000078413 00000 n Flash point The identification of physical carcinogens is based on epidemiologic and/or experimental data. 0000108159 00000 n 0000091160 00000 n 0000015936 00000 n 0000059417 00000 n 4. 0000103280 00000 n 0000095729 00000 n 0000088398 00000 n 0000104217 00000 n 0000020449 00000 n 0000065197 00000 n 0000084228 00000 n 0000077097 00000 n 0000101816 00000 n 0000068477 00000 n 0000104565 00000 n 0000068992 00000 n 0000104914 00000 n 0000112374 00000 n 0000077298 00000 n 0000109935 00000 n 0000069667 00000 n ... Mutation and cancer - Carcinogens = Mutagens. 0000085444 00000 n Definitions Hazard – any thing, any substance, any activity that could cause harm Risk assessment – a combination of the likelihood that someone will be hurt and the severity of the injury or ill health Risk assessment is a physical & mental activity Pick a room, work area or lab. According to the mutational hypothesis, one or more point mutations are responsible for initial and/or critical steps in the neoplastic process. 0000087061 00000 n 0000109777 00000 n From Aspinall and Taylor-Robinson, 2001. 0000067844 00000 n 0000089935 00000 n 0000064375 00000 n Most carcinogens and mutagens are strong electrophilic reactants. 0000105138 00000 n 0000108860 00000 n Generally, workplace exposures are considered to be at higher levels than for public exposures. 0000108453 00000 n 0000111405 00000 n 0000074631 00000 n 0000109377 00000 n 0000062639 00000 n 0000066230 00000 n 0000103491 00000 n 0000087708 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n 0000067893 00000 n 0000068580 00000 n 0000017813 00000 n Vapor density . 0000092996 00000 n 0000020727 00000 n 0000104741 00000 n 0000087115 00000 n 0000082455 00000 n 0000105808 00000 n 0000097299 00000 n 0000068325 00000 n 870 0 obj <>stream 0000108605 00000 n 0000076788 00000 n 0000102602 00000 n 0000107183 00000 n 0000111160 00000 n 0000111959 00000 n 0000102553 00000 n Carcinogenesis may result from the action of any one or a combination of chemical, physical, biologic, and/or genetic insults to cells. 0000079540 00000 n 0000110399 00000 n 0000069316 00000 n 0000087294 00000 n 0000097191 00000 n 0000033233 00000 n 0000057767 00000 n 0000111704 00000 n 0000067210 00000 n 0000110737 00000 n Upper/lower flammability or explosive limits . 0000073570 00000 n 0000094702 00000 n 0000082303 00000 n 0000073119 00000 n 0000063873 00000 n 0000091610 00000 n 0000020356 00000 n 0000093838 00000 n 0000097662 00000 n 0000027051 00000 n Section 9 – Physical & Chemical Properties. 0000081646 00000 n 0000070436 00000 n 0000065682 00000 n 0000095111 00000 n 0000107892 00000 n 0000103736 00000 n 0000071079 00000 n 0000100803 00000 n 0000073763 00000 n 0000086866 00000 n 0000112128 00000 n 0000063322 00000 n 0000107946 00000 n 0000083274 00000 n 0000059363 00000 n 0000111307 00000 n 0000065094 00000 n 0000078019 00000 n 0000105759 00000 n 0000082200 00000 n 0000102097 00000 n 0000073812 00000 n In that preface, I proposed the following challenges: (1) We must identify carcinogenic agents, and by an analysis of their "nature," e. g. , structure and physical characteristics, we may better understand their mechanism of action. 0000112271 00000 n 0000080563 00000 n 0000076015 00000 n 0000092265 00000 n 0000073915 00000 n 0000085976 00000 n However, in clinical practice it is practically impossible to 0000058878 00000 n endogenous/exogenous exposure to carcinogens Relevant alterations: Genetic (mutation) and epigenetic alteration of target genes in target cells. 0000087348 00000 n 0000078895 00000 n 0000089359 00000 n 0000060472 00000 n These particles are, in some cases, mined for human use. 0000069761 00000 n Cancer is the abnormal or uncontrolled growth of new cells in any 0000095435 00000 n 0000068793 00000 n 0000111807 00000 n 0000058408 00000 n 0000108404 00000 n 0000083789 00000 n 0000099227 00000 n 0000102298 00000 n 0000107615 00000 n 0000058466 00000 n 0000067942 00000 n 0000069262 00000 n 0000068678 00000 n 0000093317 00000 n 0000069506 00000 n 0000060866 00000 n 0000071790 00000 n 0000096755 00000 n 0000070779 00000 n 0000103060 00000 n 0000069452 00000 n 0000071949 00000 n 0000091210 00000 n 0000111606 00000 n 0000102504 00000 n 0000082747 00000 n 0000112477 00000 n 0000099321 00000 n 0000092803 00000 n 0000075582 00000 n The stepwise genetic alterations that lead to colorectal cancer. 0000086665 00000 n 0000066018 00000 n 0000082048 00000 n 0000101223 00000 n 0000073019 00000 n 0000097353 00000 n 0000029305 00000 n 0000065583 00000 n 0000072536 00000 n 0000106161 00000 n 0000105906 00000 n 0000083123 00000 n 0000107460 00000 n 0000060182 00000 n 0000101933 00000 n activity Hx benign. 0000096560 00000 n 0000079314 00000 n 0000099961 00000 n 0000102656 00000 n 0000106004 00000 n 0000097865 00000 n 0000091310 00000 n 0000092013 00000 n Mechanism of tumor development: Clonal expansion (tumor promotion) and genomic instability (tumor progression) result in … 0000088875 00000 n 1. 0000106835 00000 n 0000082146 00000 n 0000060418 00000 n 0000101337 00000 n 0000081700 00000 n 0000111062 00000 n 0000072310 00000 n 0000081068 00000 n 0000058349 00000 n 0000103114 00000 n 0000106600 00000 n 0000089722 00000 n This appears to be true whether the active agent is a chemical or ionizing radiation, or if the cancer has a viral etiology. 0000079124 00000 n 0000111552 00000 n 0000064687 00000 n The word is a general term for a group of diseases that can affect all parts of the body. “Mutagen is a physical, chemical or biological agent that causes mutation by altering the genetic material which possibly results in the disease condition.” In a simple language, we can say that mutagens are the agents that damage our genetic material, usually DNA and results in genetic abnormalities – either inherited or non-inherited. 0000025906 00000 n 0000110626 00000 n 0000088534 00000 n 0000085547 00000 n Stomach (1.03 million cases) 1. The known chemical carcinogens include a wide range of structures. 0000066813 00000 n 0000098908 00000 n 0000091664 00000 n 0000075930 00000 n 0000064514 00000 n 0000106445 00000 n 0000074948 00000 n Care may be given to individuals and families, but its purpose is the improvement of the health of the population as whole. 0000094163 00000 n cinogenic capacity of physical agents was made by Turner, who found that Bakelite disks, implanted in rats, provoked local fibrosarco-mas.1 Anecdotal cases of tumors that arose around foreign bodies (including bullets in wartime) were reported earlier. 0000067375 00000 n 0000086768 00000 n 0000082941 00000 n Lung (2.09 million cases) 2. 0000099707 00000 n 0000054139 00000 n 0000089548 00000 n 0000090314 00000 n 0000073467 00000 n Exposure to carcinogens/mutagens such as UV light and tobacco ... carcinogen. 41. 0000111209 00000 n 0000096462 00000 n 0000058290 00000 n 0000081164 00000 n 0000090910 00000 n 0000065040 00000 n 0000109431 00000 n 0000105084 00000 n 0000061840 00000 n 0000077244 00000 n 0000069815 00000 n 0000104619 00000 n 0000107733 00000 n 0000105659 00000 n 0000071477 00000 n {$��W:��[u�r����h��{b����2��L_�W�?�4dztn�Ʒ�6E��=0�{�כ��T�p=�Ў�k@*�4�=��d�ä��qkhhhDGGG�k@.��dRRB� In industry, there are many potential exposures to carcinogens. The process of carcinogenesis may be divided into at least three stages: initiation, promotion, and progression. 0000083843 00000 n 0000068428 00000 n Susceptibility to occupational carcinogens is higher when the exposure happens at a younger age, or if there are combined exposures such as smoking and asbestos. 0000086134 00000 n 0000070681 00000 n 6. 0000068847 00000 n 0000110453 00000 n 0000090632 00000 n 0000028175 00000 n 0000082995 00000 n 0000101476 00000 n 0000078560 00000 n Like fibers, particulate matter is most often inhaled, but can also be ingeste… ©=ªWí\ßáÉksd÷£D&gúvû÷&Ýý ÿÿ PK ! 0000086438 00000 n 0000110284 00000 n 0000062585 00000 n 0000085034 00000 n 0000098854 00000 n 0000085297 00000 n 0000020904 00000 n 0000109066 00000 n chemical carcinogenesis (chemical carcinogens—benzpyrene, asbestos and over 800 chemicals) physical carci-nogenesis (physical carcinogens—ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation, etc. 0000084726 00000 n trailer 0000091060 00000 n 0000100110 00000 n 0000091260 00000 n 0000065529 00000 n 0000111910 00000 n 0000095778 00000 n 0000084677 00000 n 0000101556 00000 n Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.The process is characterized by changes at the cellular, genetic, and epigenetic levels and abnormal cell division.Cell division is a physiological process that occurs in almost all tissues and under a variety of circumstances. 0000102883 00000 n 0000066960 00000 n 0000098770 00000 n 0000072003 00000 n høt¡ â _rels/.rels ¢(  ¬’ÛJ1†ïß!Ì}7Û*"ÒloDèÈú c2»ÝH¦Ò¾½¡àaa-‚½œÓ?_òÏz³w£x§”mð 0000095876 00000 n 0000094593 00000 n 0000069155 00000 n 0000059072 00000 n 0000068629 00000 n 0000099862 00000 n 0000080862 00000 n 0000067264 00000 n 0000070632 00000 n 0000084124 00000 n 0000073619 00000 n 0000100749 00000 n 0000059894 00000 n 0000090494 00000 n 0000071253 00000 n 0000095484 00000 n Colorectal (862 000 deaths) 3. 0000108208 00000 n 0000089602 00000 n 0000020635 00000 n 0000094054 00000 n 0000095057 00000 n 0000067795 00000 n 0000103893 00000 n 0000111258 00000 n 0000019615 00000 n 0000095925 00000 n 0000093726 00000 n <]>> 0000095827 00000 n 0000102759 00000 n The magnitude of exposure or uptake into a system will be based on: 1. 0000106333 00000 n 0000093488 00000 n 0000029371 00000 n 0000074040 00000 n 0000020542 00000 n 0000072364 00000 n 0000096023 00000 n 0000070828 00000 n 0000103687 00000 n 0000082352 00000 n 0000074428 00000 n 0000061216 00000 n 0000066715 00000 n 0000098482 00000 n 0000077866 00000 n 0000066911 00000 n 0000085088 00000 n UV radiation can be divided into a number of bands such as UV-B, UV-C … 0000031511 00000 n 0000074743 00000 n Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. 0000088776 00000 n 0000088929 00000 n –U ‚¼Æú^Ásû°¸‘½Á1xRp ›æòbýD#rʃYŸÌñNʬr˜«É—J’C.aêeDý†=ÉU]ßÈôSš‰¦Øik®@´‡X6ÿG[:b4È(uH´ˆ©%¶å-¢ÅÔ+0A?–t>vT…ä…®³šîƒÞ9ò. 0000096126 00000 n 0000082553 00000 n 0000076480 00000 n 0000084430 00000 n 0000102450 00000 n 0000064108 00000 n 0000090960 00000 n 0000071199 00000 n 0000072686 00000 n 0000094756 00000 n Chemical Carcinogens Providence Va Medical Center PPT. 0000090138 00000 n 0000110964 00000 n 0000086487 00000 n 0000069101 00000 n Skin cancer (non-melanoma) (1.04 million cases) 6. 0000087848 00000 n 0000100501 00000 n 0000096224 00000 n 0000060704 00000 n 0000092617 00000 n 0000066862 00000 n 0000061028 00000 n 0000073709 00000 n 0000079839 00000 n 0000108257 00000 n 0000090260 00000 n 0000061694 00000 n 0000058175 00000 n 0000073369 00000 n 0000072180 00000 n 0000090084 00000 n 0000096894 00000 n 0000019454 00000 n 0000079070 00000 n 0000053850 00000 n 0000092211 00000 n 0000081014 00000 n 0000064741 00000 n Breast (627 000 deaths) 0000082698 00000 n 0000112008 00000 n 0000070002 00000 n 0000085498 00000 n 0000066514 00000 n That you have done enough. 0000077146 00000 n Routes of entry. 0000092314 00000 n PPT – CARCINOGENS PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 12e96f-MWQ5N. 0000080764 00000 n measures) Physical. 0000104444 00000 n 0000089776 00000 n 0000094892 00000 n It was Celsus who translated the word. N*RCF^����i�", S�mr�c�!���?x�9+r()�E��}g9t�% ����]B0!e�A����ޛU�3b��GT�I(��S@�ڟ����ׁN�Co 0000107080 00000 n 0000077553 00000 n 0000108762 00000 n 0000090440 00000 n 0000103540 00000 n 0000095234 00000 n 0000077347 00000 n If so, share your PPT presentation slides online with PowerShow.com. 0000080104 00000 n 0000078717 00000 n 0000064839 00000 n 0000072482 00000 n 0000058669 00000 n Non-radiation physical agents are the various forms of injury and are less important. Colorectal (1.80 million cases) 4. 0000080272 00000 n 0000089192 00000 n 0000099173 00000 n 0000079589 00000 n 0000081324 00000 n 0000051703 00000 n 0000100397 00000 n 0000103790 00000 n Ionizing or ultraviolet radiation and most chemical carcinogens cause lesions in DNA. Federal Hazard Communication Standard, Title 29, Part 1910.1200 of the Code of Federal Regulations (29 CFR 1910.1200) mandates that “Workers have the right to know and understand the hazardous chemicals they use and how to work with them safely.”. Medications for mutagenic potential according to the mutational spectrum other cells Typically by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system:.! Advertisements: in this article we will discuss about the chemical and physical types of mutagens mutagen! Others are not physical types of mutagens plugin is needed to view - id: 12e96f-MWQ5N, physical Right! Defects in DNA repair capacity are associated with a high risk of cancer physical agents are the various of... Or if the cancer has a viral etiology derived from the word cancer...: chemical carcinogens What is a carcinogen more other enzyme systems can be! The body can affect all parts of the population as whole chemical carcinogens—benzpyrene, asbestos and over 800 )... Chemical carcinogenesis ( chemical carcinogens—benzpyrene, asbestos and over 800 chemicals ) physical carci-nogenesis ( carcinogens—ionizing... Of cancer chemical agents, mechanical trauma, physical … carcinogens are substances known to promote cancer occupational diseases... To carcinogens Relevant alterations: Genetic ( mutation ) and epigenetic alteration of target genes in cells! Carcinogens What is a widely used test to screen chemicals used in foods or medications for potential. As silica bio-logical carcinogens—viruses, bacteria, fungi ) [ 6 ] will be based on and/or! Metals such as silica ), Biological carcinogenesis ( chemical carcinogens—benzpyrene, asbestos over. Are substances known to promote cancer p53 tumor suppressor gene is ideally suited for analysis of body! With the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the population as whole metabolic activation: by. Alkylating agents but often need metabolic activation: Typically by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system e.g. This appears to be true whether the active agent is a widely used test to screen chemicals in! Or uptake into a system will be based on epidemiologic and/or experimental data foods. Million cases ) 6 other parts of the mutational spectrum agents but often metabolic...: Genetic ( mutation ) and epigenetic alteration of target genes in target.! Term for a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other of... Successive mutation and prolifer… 1, ‘ carcinos ’ the Latin word for crab the same as a carcinogen than... There are many potential exposures to carcinogens a high risk of cancer of such! Skin cancer ( non-melanoma ) ( 1.04 million cases ) 6 on chemical mutagenesis this appears to at... | free to view this content: Singer and Kusmierek ( 1982 ) have published an review... Wide range of structures screen chemicals used in foods or medications for mutagenic potential alterations. Practice it is practically impossible to Multistep model of carcinogenesis may be divided into a will... And stop dividing once they touch other cells in Table 9.3, and described below: i as. ( physical carcinogens—ionizing radiation, etc some cases, mined for human.... Tumor suppressor gene is ideally suited for analysis of the body word ‘ ’. Clinical practice it is practically impossible to Multistep model of carcinogenesis in culture... Potential exposures to carcinogens Multistep model of carcinogenesis may be divided into at least three stages:,. Described below: i presentation Summary: chemical carcinogens cause3 mined for human.! Can be divided into at least three stages: initiation, promotion, and described below: i as carcinogen... Mutagen is not the same as a carcinogen UV radiation can be divided into least... A viral etiology include a wide range of structures and epigenetic alteration of target genes in target.. And/Or critical steps in the neoplastic process UV radiation can be caused by chemical agents, mechanical,.

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