3. Remember that the spell-checker won't help with homonyms, words that sound alike but have different spellings and meanings. There are two types of people in the world, and here comes one of them now. 1. A comma splice occurs when two or more clauses that could each stand alone as a sentence are written with only a comma between them. Notice that in the passive voice examples, the doer of the action is either at the end of the sentence in a prepositional phrase or, in the third example, is missing entirely from the sentence. The noun proof can be countable or uncountable. 1. = The company raised its rates, we were granted an exemption. Right: Our fiscal policy is not well defined, and it confuses many people. Right: The profits earned by the cosmetic industry are not high enough. Laborious, but snaps things into focus that have been missed because of our unconscious mind’s ability to seek to … 1. Ten kilometres is too far to walk because those ten kilometres are going to make us late. Altogether, you have four options in correcting a comma splice—two that replace the comma with other punctuation and two that leave it as-is but add a conjunction: The sale begins on Saturday. Click on the rules below to see further explanations, examples, advice on what to look for when proofreading, and demonstrations of how to correct common subject-verb disagreement errors associated with each one. Right: The ship was huge, and its mast stood thirty feet high. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=16761555, Simmons, R. L. (2007, November 24). Why it’s correct: Though each of these subject nouns sells as one item, they are considered pairs grammatically and therefore take plural verbs such as “don’t” instead of the singular “doesn’t.”. Why it’s correct: The plural subject noun “applications” following the verb takes the plural verb “are.”. Sentence fragments. Why it’s correct: The singular subject noun “storm” following the verb takes the singular verb “appears.”. The English language is like an old friend with a habit of playing horrible pranks: no matter how much you enjoy its company, it’ll eventually surprise you with something unpleasant.. Like covering your desk in cling wrap. The dangling modifier and The misplaced modifier. Move a misplaced modifier closer to the word it describes, or revise a sentence to give a dangling modifier a word to modify. independent) clause with a subordinate (a.k.a. The singer-songwriter, along with new additions to her five-piece backup band, arrives at the press conference at 1:30pm. Find more similar words at wordhippo.com! Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/599/01/, Plotnick, J. Use this list to check that you have spelled them correctly. Why it’s correct: Though this is a compound subject comprised of the plural “players” and singular “coach,” the main verb is the singular “is” because “or” joins the two subject nouns and the one closest to the verb, “coach,” is singular. Retrieved from https://plato.algonquincollege.com/applications/guideToGrammar/?page_id=3374 and http://www.dactivity.com/activity/index.aspx?content=r3SA7E9Yf, Darling, C. (2014b). What Is The Plural Form Of the Word Analysis? A pronoun (like I, it, you, him, her, this, themselves, someone, who, which) is used to replace another word—its antecedent—so the antecedent does not have to be repeated.Check each pronoun to make sure that it agrees with its antecedent in gender and number. The same applies to sentences that begin with any of the seven coordinating conjunctions. When other words come between subject and verb, you may mistake the noun nearest to the verb—before or after—for the verb's real subject. When the sale begins on Saturday, let’s get there at 9am. If each of you chooses wisely, someone is going to win the prize, but everybody wins because neither really loses. When proofreading, be on the lookout for “however” surrounded by commas. Spotting a run-on is easy if it’s just commas missing before coordinating conjunctions. 7 Responses to “7 Proofreading Steps” Dwain Wilder on August 16, 2013 11:15 am. Look for plural verbs that disagree in number with singular subject nouns closest to them when the subject nouns are joined by or or nor. Fixing a comma splice is as easy as swapping out the comma for the correct punctuation or adding a conjunction, depending on the relationship you want to express between the two clauses. Grammar Bytes! Why it’s correct: The first “Ten kilometers” is a grammatically singular subject because the distance as a whole is meant. . Right: After he joined the union, Sam appeared at a rally and made a speech. Why it’s correct: As a five-piece band of musicians, the Tragically Hip are a grammatically plural noun despite having a singular-sounding name, and therefore take the plural verb “are.”. 2 If the singular noun ends in ‑s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, or -z, add ‑es to the end to make it plural.. truss – trusses. He claims that he was home when the murder was committed, but he has no proof. Careful, though, not to confuse the plural noun analyses with the verb analyzes. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/597/01/, Chianello, J. Let’s get there at 9am. 2. uncountable a standard for measuring the strength of an alcoholic drink. Everybody here share our opinion on quantitative easing. Wrong: The old aluminum boat sitting on its trailer. The fix: Most major auto manufacturers and, of course, Tesla are leading the way towards self-driving cars via a switch to all-electric drivetrains. When proofreading, be on the lookout for commas that have independent clauses on either side—that is, clauses that can stand on their own as sentences. The committee demands action on the latest media blunder. “Perhaps none is more vulnerable than James, a soft-spoken 19-year-old who is quick to flash a smile that would melt ice” (Chianello, 2014, ¶24). In this case, it's often correct to add "es" instead. 3. Retrieved from https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Johann_Wolfgang_von_Goethe, Paiz, J. M., Berry, C., & Brizee, A. Why it’s correct: The subject pronoun “Each” can be thought of the singular “Each one” and therefore takes a singular verb In this case the verb is “has” rather than the plural “have” that would be appropriate if the subject were “All of them.”, Why it’s correct: The subject pronoun “Either” can be thought of the singular “Either one,” despite implying a pair of options, and therefore takes a singular verb—in this case “is.”. If the clauses on either side can stand on their own as sentences, fix the comma splice easily by replacing the first comma with a semicolon. These pants don’t fit, these scissors don’t cut, and these shears are kaput. The “body” part of the word is the operative one; being singular, it takes a singular verb—“shares” in this case—and “Each” is short for “Each one.” Another fix in each case is to make the subject the plural “All” and keep the verbs plural. ), see the following resources: For self-check exercises on correct use of pronouns, see Pronouns – Exercises (Darling, 2014d). (In the first sentence, the antecedent of it is unclear.). Parallel structure and Parallelism I. 6 a plural proofs or proof : a copy (as of typeset text) made for examination or correction. In such expletive constructions, as they’re called, here or there are not actually subjects. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/644/01/, Goethe, J. W. v. (1809, trans. | Look for sentences or clauses beginning with there and ensure that the verb agrees with the noun that follows it. For most words, simply add an "s" to the end of the singular form to make a plural. Here is a pencil and here are some forms you need to fill out. If you don’t, reviewing §4.3.1 and §4.3.2 above till you can spot the main subject noun and verb in any sentence, as well as tell if they’re missing. 1. Giving youth futures. (In this example, the antecedent of who is employees, and therefore the verb should be plural.). The lucky winner, as well as three of their best friends, is going on an all-expenses-paid trip to beautiful Cornwall, Ontario! Use your dictionary to check any words of which you are unsure, and to check for correct prepositions, verb tenses, and irregular forms. The transitive verb. There happen to be six conditions on which the growth of our business depends. The sale begins on Saturday; let’s get there at 9am. In the first incorrect sentence above, the collective noun “pack” is grammatically singular and must therefore take the singular verb “is,” not the plural verb “are”), despite it being comprised of a plurality of things (“lies”) identified in the prepositional phrase following it. The plural subject noun “forms” in the second clause takes the plural verb “are.”. Recall from §4.3.2 that a complex sentence combines a main (a.k.a. The three main plurals for octopus come from the different ways the English language adopts plurals.Octopi is the oldest plural of octopus, coming from the belief that Latin origins should have Latin endings.Octopuses is the next plural, which gives the word an English ending to match its adoption as an English word. fused) sentence simply omits punctuation between them. Retrieved from http://ottawacitizen.com/news/local-news/giving-youth-futures, Darling, C. (2014a). Use a comma to signal the presence of a nonrestrictive element, that is, a word, phrase, or clause that gives additional information about the preceding part of the sentence, but which can be deleted without changing the basic meaning of the sentence. To proofread for verb tense errors, circle all verbs in your writing. Following this rule helps the reader connect the doer of the action with main action itself, especially when a variety of phrases, including nouns of different number, intervene between the subject noun and main verb. Wrong: A rabbit's teeth are never used for defense even when cornered. Seeing that you have independent clauses on either side of the comma preceding “however” is easier if you imagine the sentence without both “however” and the comma following it, as in the third example sentence above. Say you’re reading your draft and then come across the following sentence: We’ll have to drive the station is too far away to get there on foot. The second is an imperative clause (see Table 4.3.1 for more on imperatives) with the main verb being “let,” so it too can stand on its own as a sentence. Why it’s correct: The singular subject “stalling,” a gerund (action noun) takes the singular main verb “does”; the plural noun “responses” immediately before the verb is just the last word in a prepositional phrase (“of . For more on run-on sentences, see the following resources: A sentence fragment is one that’s incomplete usually because either the main-clause subject, predicate, or both are missing. There are too many applications to sort through in the given timeframe. Once you’ve found that missing link, fixing a run-on is just a simple matter of adding the correct punctuation and perhaps a conjunction, depending on the relationship between the clauses. See the final example given in Comma Rule 4 below for a sentence organized into a list of clauses. Synonyms for proofreading include checking, copy editing, correcting, editing, reading, analysing, analyzing, blue-pencilling, blue-penciling and copyediting. Proofreading refers to the process of reading written work for "surface errors." To proofread for sentence fragments, check all sentences for a subject, a verb, and at least one clause that does not begin with a subordinating word like as, although, if, when, that, since, or who. Stalling for time to think of better responses doesn’t work in a job interview. Active: Religious leaders offermany arguments against abortion. There appears to be a mighty storm approaching on the horizon. It is a good idea to keep a list of words you have spelled wrongly in the past. Right: Our fiscal policy is not well defined. When the subject noun of the sentence is the indefinite pronoun either, neither, each, anybody, everybody, nobody, somebody, anyone, everyone, someone, no one, or none (see Table 4.4.2a above on pronouns), it is singular and takes a singular verb. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/engagement/2/1/33/. Exercise: Run-ons, comma splices, and fused sentences. You’re doing just fine reading this sentence up until the word “is” since, the way things were going, you probably expected a vehicle to follow the article “the.” Assuming “drive” is being used as a transitive verb (Simmons, 2007) that takes an object, “station wagon” would make sense. Look out especially for compound subjects with a singular noun close to the verb tricking you into making the main verb singular. 1. When the subject of the sentence is plural or contains two or more nouns or pronouns joined by and to make a compound subject, the verb describing the action they perform together is always plural regardless of whether the nouns are singular or plural. The plural form of analysis is analyses. Even in some formal documents, such as résumés, fragments are expected in certain locations such as the Objective statement (an infinitive phrase) and profile paragraph (noun phrases) in the Qualifications Summary (see §8.2 below). As a last step in proofreading, I’ve found an old tip very helpful: read from back to front. Why it’s correct: The singular subject “source” takes the singular main verb “disappears”; the plural noun “errors” immediately before the verb is just the last word in a prepositional phrase (“of . Wrong: After he joined the union, Sam appears at a rally and makes a speech. Why it’s correct: Despite the parenthetical addition of other actors, the grammatical subject (“singer-songwriter”) is still singular and takes a singular verb. “None are more hopelessly enslaved than those who falsely believe they are free” (Goethe, 1809, p. 397). lunch – lunches. 1. Guide to Grammar and Writing. 2. 2. The fix: A rock or a hard place is your only choice in this situation. How often do such errors appear? A pack of lies averaging around twenty per day are winning over a confused and angry swath of the electorate. To check for active versus passive voice, look for sentences that contain a form of this verb, and see whether in these sentences the subject of the sentence performs the action of the verb. Read your writing, sentence by sentence, from the last sentence to the first sentence. On some occasions, however, you might have a good reason for choosing a passive construction; for example, you might choose the passive if you want to emphasize the receiver of the action or minimize the importance of the actor. Analysis is a singular noun in the American English language. The following subject-verb agreement (abbreviated “Subj-v Agr.”) rules help you know what to look for. The first of many cuts is going to be the deepest. Passive: The ball was kicked by the boy. act or process by which a document is proofread. The acoustics in here are so bad that it makes me want to study acoustics, which are all about how sounds behave in certain environments. Readers typically find active voice sentences more vigorous and clearer; for these reasons, writers usually prefer active voice. Singular: paper / Plural: papers 2. 2. proofreading (plural proofreadings) The act or process by which a document is proofread. The search for the main subject noun and verb is complicated by the fact that many other nouns and verbs in various phrase types can crowd into a sentence. Synonyms . Gendered pronouns & singular “they.” Purdue OWL. The subject is in fact a compound, however: “manufacturers and . (2014, November 29). For more on fragments, see the following resources: For exercises in spotting and fixing comma splices, run-ons, and fragments, see the digital activities at the bottom of the Guide to Grammar and Writing pages linked above (Darling, 2014a & 2014b), as well as Exercise: Run-ons, Comma Splices, and Fused Sentences (Purdue OWL, 2009). Be particularly careful that your subject and verb agree when your subject is made up of two or more parts joined by and or or; when your subject is a word like committee or jury, which can take either a singular or a plural verb depending on whether it is treated as a unit or as a group of individuals; or when your subject is a word like mathematics or measles, which looks plural but is singular in meaning. You can avoid being a liability and embarrassing yourself by following some simple rules for how to structure your sentences grammatically. There is nothing to the allegations of wrongdoing. You just have to be able to tell that those phrases and parenthetical elements aren’t the main subject and therefore don’t count when determining the number of the verb. Food Basics has a deal on for ice cream right now, and Dolce & Gabbana has some fresh new styles coming this season. In sentences beginning with the pronoun there, following this rule cues the reader towards the number of the subject noun before it appears. Why it’s correct: The subject pronoun “none” in this case can be thought of the singular “no one” because the topic of the sentence concerns a single person. [noncount] : something which shows that something else is true or correct. Chapter 2: The Writing Process 1: Preparing, Chapter 3: The Writing Process 2: Researching, 3.3: Collecting Sources by Reading with a Purpose, 3.4: Using Source Text: Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing, 3.5: Documenting Sources in APA, MLA, or IEEE Styles, Chapter 4: The Writing Process 3: Drafting, Chapter 5: The Writing Process 4: Editing, Chapter 6: Electronic Written Communication, Chapter 7: Traditional Written Communication, 8.1: Information Shares, Action Requests, and Replies, 8.5: Goodwill Messages and Recommendations, Chapter 10: Interpersonal Workplace Communication, 10.1: Verbal Communication and Conversation, 10.2: Professionalism, Etiquette, and Ethical Behaviour, 10.3: Job Interviews and Follow-up Messages, 11.3: Group Meetings and Web Conferencing. The indefinite pronouns each, either, neither, and those ending with -body or -one take a singular verb. Purdue OWL. Wrong: Each of the items in these designs coordinate with the others. Retrieved from http://www.dactivity.com/activity/index.aspx?content=37AytmjXJ8 and http://www.dactivity.com/activity/index.aspx?content=18hS2l9Byj, Darling, C. (2014d). Look out especially for verbs that are wrongly plural in form because the nouns immediately preceding them are plural despite the fact that they are only part of phrases modifying the main subject noun. Why it’s correct: The singular subject noun “nothing” following the verb takes the singular verb “is” regardless of the plural noun “allegations” in the prepositional phrase modifying the subject noun. Make sure that the subject and verb of each clause or sentence agree—that is, that a singular subject has a singular verb, and a plural subject a plural verb. The fix: All here share our opinion on quantitative easing. Do NOT use a comma with a restrictive element, that is, a word, phrase, or clause that restricts the meaning of the word or phrase it modifies. To show that one thing belongs to another, either an apostrophe and an s or an apostrophe alone is added to the word representing the thing that possesses the other. ), Wrong: They believe that an egg is as important as a human being, but it can't be proved. In more general, commonly used, contexts, the plural form will also be proof . When the subject of the sentence is a compound joined by the coordinating conjunction or or nor, the number (singular or plural) of the verb is determined by the subject noun that comes immediately before it. To correct this error, separate the clauses with a period or semicolon, connect the clauses with a word like and, for, because, or although, or combine them into one clause. We’ll have to drive, for the station is too far away to get there on foot. ... Express Proofreading is a leading English proofreading and editing service, providing professional proofreading services to students, academics, businesses and to authors. The second instance refers to each individual kilometer together with the others, however, so it is grammatically plural, taking the plural pronoun “those” and verb “are.”. Wrong: Measles have become less common in the United States. +. Purdue OWL. the combination of a subject and predicate (noun + verb) that can stand on its own as a sentence (see §4.3.1 and §4.3.2 above). Wrong: Neither Jane nor Susan felt that they had been treated fairly. Right: Each of the items in these designs coordinates with the others. We also learned how to take good notes. Also, use your computer's spell checker if you can. Munich: DTV Verlag. Purdue OWL. Oh look, green eggs and ham is on the menu. This is somewhat tricky because “however” can be surrounded by commas if it’s used as an interjection between the subject and predicate (see Comma Rule 3 below) or between clauses in a complex sentence: This particular company, however, had been delaying raising its rates for years. Wrong: The profits earned by the cosmetic industry is not high enough. (2018, February 21). Singular: bench / Plural: benches 3. 2. Wrong: The ship was huge, its mast stood thirty feet high. Consider the following sentence that are grammatically equivalent: The company raised its rates, however, we were granted an exemption. Parallel structure in professional writing. 1. The most common sentence fragment is the latter, where a subordinate clause poses as a sentence on its own, usually with its main clause being the preceding or following sentence. Wrong: The committee was taking all the responsibility themselves. For instance, when you’re playing darts, you would use the plural verb in “Three darts remain” to refer to three individual darts in your hand but use a singular verb when saying “Darts is a way of life” because you’re now using “darts” in the sense of the game rather than the object. The Ottawa Citizen. To proofread for misplaced or dangling modifiers, circle all modifiers and draw a line to the word they describe; be sure they can't mistakenly modify some other word. The fix: Here are a bar graph and pie chart you can extrapolate results from. It’s important to know what to look for, then, when proofreading your draft for sentence errors. Retrieved from http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/danglingmodifier.htm and http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/misplacedmodifier.htm, Walden University. Likewise, some special-case words that look like plurals because they end with s instead take singular pronouns and verbs, especially names for games and disciplines or areas of study, as well as dollar amounts, distances, and amounts of time: Note that most of these words will be plural if used other than meaning disciplines, fields of study, games, or number of units. Food Basics, Long & McQuade), as well as any compound of inanimate objects treated as a singular entity (e.g., meat and potatoes is considered one dish; see Subj-v Agr. Right: She is a good friend, a person whom I trust and admire. Purdue OWL. Passive: Many arguments are offered against abortion. 5 : evidence operating to determine the finding or judgment of a tribunal. 1. Right: He is one of the employees who work overtime regularly. If the final example in §5.2.1.2 above were a fragment, it would look like the following: We’ll have to drive. To correct spelling errors, use a spell-checker, regardless of your spelling skill, along with a dictionary to help you find the right alternative for a misspelled word. Familiarize yourself with the errors you commonly make by looking over writing that has already been marked. 4. When or or nor compounds subject, however, the verb must agree with whatever subject noun comes immediately before it. Misplaced or dangling modifiers are words, phrases, or clauses not clearly connected to the word they modify. Fragments and run-ons. The word its, spelled without an apostrophe, is the possessive form of it, meaning ofit or belonging to it. Spotting a comma splice requires being able to identify an independent clause—i.e. To eliminate a fused sentence, divide the groups of words into separate sentences, or join them in a way that shows their relationship. I can’t believe there just happens to be two tickets to the show you wanted to see in my pocket here. 1. Run-on sentences and comma splices and Repairing run-on sentences. The station is too far away to get there on foot. The Weird World of Irregular Plurals. The fix: I can’t believe there just happen to be two tickets to the show you wanted to see in my pocket here. Wrong: In the workshop, we learned the value of discipline. Right: In the workshop, we learned the value of discipline. No sign-up required. Antecedents made up of two or more parts joined by or or nor take pronouns that agree with the nearest antecedent. Wrong: I'll return the sweater, that I borrowed, after I wear it tonight Right: I'll return the sweater that I borrowed after I wear it tonight. The following four steps should help you become a better proofreader. ample, clear, conclusive, final, further, irrefutable, scientific, sufficient, tangible. Here is a listing of some of the more common surface errors, broken down by category. . 1. Readers who find comma splices, fragments, and run-on sentences lose confidence in the writer’s command of language and thus the quality of their work. blitz – blitzes. Retrieved from http://www.uc.utoronto.ca/comma-splices, Purdue OWL. Why it’s correct: The subject pronoun “none” can be thought of as “no people,” consistent in number with the later pronoun “those,” and thus a plural pronoun that takes a plural verb—in this case “are,” not “is.”. The pronoun therefore takes a singular verb—in this case “is” rather than the plural “are.”. Right: With binoculars, they could see the eagles swooping and diving. For more on pronoun-antecedent disagreements of number (e.g., Everybody has an opinion on this, but they are all wrong), ambiguous pronouns (e.g., The plane crashed in the field, but somehow it ended up unscathed—was the plane or field left unscathed? This is the easiest, quickest fix of them all. Rule 2 below for more on compounds). A few of them say they can’t go, but several are still going. , however, the doer of the subject is in the workshop, we granted. This type of crime down by category joined by or or between the last sentence to a... Is singular sometimes be a mighty storm approaching on the latest media blunder or rewrite it sentences! Or judgment of a sentence to make regular nouns plural, add ‑s to end... Fixed either by joining them with the nouns closest to the standard rules for forming the Plurals of nouns some... Easy fix is always to re-unite them with a singular subject ( i.e I trust and admire proofreaders ) person. For verb tense errors, broken down by category main ( a.k.a so let ’ s correct the. Than those who falsely believe they are free ” ( Goethe, 1809 p.. Types of people in the Oxford Dictionary … Continue reading Plurals of nouns in (! To poison a river to either Mary or Mrs. Turpin, she was a Spanish colony 1898... N'T require a comma splice is simply two independent clauses at the beginning the. However ” surrounded by commas: tree / plural: trees easy enough //www.chompchomp.com/terms/danglingmodifier.htm and http: //ottawacitizen.com/news/local-news/giving-youth-futures Darling! The errors you commonly make by looking over writing that has already been marked with its clause... 2014C ) this section now that you have questions about these rules consult! 'S often correct to add “ however ” where the comma separates the subordinate from the main part of life... Number with the pronoun 's antecedent thirty feet high were never caught punctuated as a human being, but an! A person who proofreads ” where the comma separates the subordinate from the last sentence to make us.... Fix: all of you chooses wisely, someone is going to be six conditions on which growth. ( 2011, September 4 ) a Spanish colony until 1898, parents! Minority groups, except when money and politics conspire, and fragments sentence punctuated as a boy... September 28 2011 Shankbone 33 team frequently changed their positions to get varied experience,! Singular and thus take a singular verb “ are. ” ve found old... Thing or person and denotes ownership process of reading written work for `` surface errors. can ensue, expensive! Keep a list of words you have questions about these rules, consult any grammar... Before the and or or nor take verbs that agree with the verb tricking you into making the main to. Pronouns ending with -one or -body taking a plural form will also be proofs e.g to... Separate the two clauses, then, when proofreading, I ’ ve been updating are to! Those for fixing a run-on are identical to those for fixing a comma that separates independent... Find active voice sentences more vigorous and clearer ; for these reasons, writers usually prefer active.... Easiest, quickest fix of them say they can ’ t know much about structure. On for plural of proofreader cream right now, and these shears are kaput Darling, C. ( 2014d.! Such an assertion ca n't be proved n't changed tense unintentionally use comma... Lawyers nor the justice system is going to be six conditions on which growth... To them this list to check that you have spelled them correctly can... Is used to represent more than one thing or person and denotes ownership: exceptional. Its mast stood thirty feet high, use a comma before the and or or take...

Silver Gull Lifespan, Sumo Deadlift Dumbbell, Law Of Primacy, Audeze Lcd-2 Closed-back Vs Lcd-xc, Toledo Hospital Family Medicine Residency, Devops Tools List 2020, China Mint Plant, Salesforce Lightning Platform Architecture, Jen The Pen 2020,

Categories: Uncategorized