Thus, its average varies in different countries. Soil is vital not only for the growth of plants and growing foo… Human-caused soil pollution can work with natural processes to increase the level of pollution in the soil. Residues of all these materials produce gases such as sulphur and nitrogen oxide. The natural structure of the soil changes with soil erosion and the useful land is destroyed. Not only the pollutants released from internal combustion engines pollute soil, but also activities like vehicles splashing water off roads during rainy season at a place with poor drainage system. The type of soil will also play a role in its distribution. They are animal wastes, use of long lived pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, nematocides, etc. In the last 30 years, the use of organic chemicals has increased by more than 11 times. Soil pollution is synonymous with the problem of disposal of solid waste. Vishal Duggal possesses over two decades of journalistic experience across print and web domains. For all these reasons, the productivity becomes low and the vegetation cover is reduced. India alone is using 100,000 tonnes of bio-chemicals per annum and thus the soil is getting increasingly polluted. In order to increase productivity, humans have been using chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Naturally, the soil contains contaminants such as metals, salts, inorganic ions, and organic compounds that are mainly formed through soil microbial activity. Major issues about … Soil acts as a filter and buffer for contaminants, but its potential to cope is finite. Chemicals such as phosphate and nitrogen are polluting the environment, groundwater resources and the soil. Soil erosion is a very slow process in nature, but its results are far-reaching and widespread. In other words, soil erosion is a process by which the soil particles transfer from place to place due to the effect of external factors (air or flowing water). After harvesting of crops, the remaining leaves, stalks, grasses, seeds etc, generally, do not lead to any serious pollution because these residues of plants are mixed in soil and are automatically decomposed by biological functions. Natural factors due to which soil degradation occurs include volcanic eruptions, alterations in rainfall patterns, earthquakes, geographical changes, air pollution and melting of glaciers. Industries also dump their solid and liquid effluents into the soil. One of the main causes of land and soil pollution is the growing quantity of domestic... 2. The mining process utilises heavy metals and many toxic chemicals such as sulphuric acid. Additionally, another sources of the metals are plant protection products. In soils used for agricultural purposes, some quantities of metals are introduced together with fertilizers, both organic and mineral. They contaminate the soil by changing their physical and chemical properties. If the levels of these radiations exceed a given limit, they lead to disastrous effects. Here is a discussion on the sources and solutions to soil pollution. The chemical pollutants gradually enter the diet chain through the crops produced. Prevention and control of soil pollution are as vital as water and air pollution control. Industrial units such as fertilizers, chemicals, sugar factories, garment making units, graphite, thermal power plants, cement factories, soap, harmful and toxic chemicals in bulk by oil and metal fabrication factories are mostly spreading soil pollution. Every cause is linked with another. It causes various respiratory diseases including asthma, bronchitis and even cancer. The most dangerous pollutants in this category are bioactive chemicals, due to which the micro-organisms of soil are being destroyed, resulting in decreased quality of soil. Soil properties are affected by past and current land uses, as well as proximity to These natural compounds (contaminants) rarely build up to generate pollution. Moreover, establishment of cement factories in the hilly areas and dust of cement which fall on the soil, prevent the growth of flora and natural vegetation. Reusing will limit the need for replacing the used products, thus relatively reducing the number of household waste products such as plastics and e-waste that are sent to the landfill. Excess wastes by man and animals pose a disposal problem. Due to chemical fertilizers and bio-chemical chemicals, an imbalance in the entire ecosystem is created. (And 5 Ways to Dispose of), Is Junk Mail Recyclable? These byproducts combine with the rainwater causing the production of acidic rain, which changes the soil pH and, after that, affects the overall crop production. Polluted soil is also contaminating drinking water in the rivers and other sources of water through rain water. The speed at which the population of the world is increasing today, soil is being exploited beyond limits to arrange for food. The pollution of the soil is either caused by natural activities or human actions that destroy its properties, such as structure, composition, and soil biota. Excessive farming, destruction of forests, excessive grazing by animals too increase soil erosion. Soil pollution refers to an undesirable decrease in the quality of soil, either by man-induced sources or natural sources or by both. There are many sources of soil pollution. Ex: Mass media, Educational institutions and voluntary agencies can achieve this. The amount of solid waste generated by our urban population (about 20 crore) in the country is estimated to be 5crore tonnes per annum. It is done regularly to ensure that the detoxification process is complete. The garbage is dumped anyhow and contains wastes such as food waste, plastics, industrial wastes, e-waste, and general household wastes. Agricultural practices such as the use of non-organic products in crop and livestock production lead to soil pollution. (And How To Keep Them Away). In this method, the technique of solvent extraction is used. A true environmentalist by heart ❤️. This C-14 participates in Carbon metabolism of plants, which is then transmitted into animals and human beings. Dumping of domestic and municipal waste in cities is a serious problem. As a result of such kind of pollution in the soil, the growth of crops and plants decreases. Diseases in humans such as dysentery, diarrhoea, plague, malaria and many other diseases are the result of indiscriminate dumping of waste. Unused chemicals and unwanted industrial waste such as lead, copper, fly ash, mud, plastic and sawdust are some unused chemicals which inhibit the growth of organic agents in the soil. However, this method is not sustainable because the release of the contaminants from the soil sends them into the atmosphere causing air pollution. Before treatment, the soil is excavated and treated before standard agricultural techniques are applied. Domestic and Municipal Wastes: He headed the editorial team of 'Sahara Time', a 48-page general interest English weekly newspaper, and later, handled a 24x7 online wing www.samaylive.com. However, some farmers use fertilizers indiscriminately, leading to soil pollution. target_type: 'mix' Natural production of perchlorate takes place in the soil in some environmental conditions (in the presence of metal objects and energy generated by the storm). The polluted soil becomes acidic in nature. While soil pollution traditionally has not received the same attention as issues like tree-planting, global momentum picked up in 2018, when the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) published a ground-breaking study: Soil Pollution: A Hidden Reality. Soil pollution also has an impact on the quality of water and air. Strontium gets deposited in bones and tissues instead of calcium. Sewage plants also contribute to soil pollution owing to how they dispose of sewage sludge from domestic and commercial waste. Municipal waste includes garbage removed from homes; human excreta, waste of fruits and vegetables thrown in markets, waste of various industrial organizations, plant waste of gardens, dung mixed with  fodder of animal shelters, garbage and sludge from street drains and gutters, and all kinds of litter generated from slaughter houses, butcher’s shop, fish market, poultry centres and leather research  institutions. Ex: Lavatories should be equipped with quick and effective disposal methods. You can see why soil contamination is such an important topic! This method can deal with various types of organic contaminants, including phenol, oil and its products, and polychlorinated hydrocarbons. (And Ways To Protect Peonies), Do Deer Eat Roses? google_ad_client = "ca-pub-6070398767421094"; Stream stripping is an example of such a method where a jet of steam is injected into the contaminated soil to cause evaporation of volatile pollutants. Currently, he lends his professional expertise to several publications and websites in content planning, commissioning, writing, and editing. Large scale industrialization and urbanization, the increasing population in the cities and the emerging fluid and solid residues are polluting the soil. Solid wastes should be treated and discarded properly. Improper disposal of wastes from nuclear reactors containing Ruthenium-106, Iodine-131, Barium140, Cesium-144 and Lanthanum-140 along with primary nuclides Sr-90 with a half-life 28 years and Cs-137 with a half-life 30 years can, therefore, result in soil pollution and contamination. For instance, the rock phosphates mineral used for the manufacture of mixed fertilizers contain traces of Asbestos, Cadmium, and Lead, which are transferred to the fertilizer during production. Most developing countries have a problem controlling the disposal of municipal garbage. Where and how much contamination is added to soils will largely determine how that contamination spreads throughout an area. Most of these wastes contain residues of toxic inorganic and organic chemicals, which are extremely harmful. Apart from these, some big items such as broken furniture, impaired motor vehicles equipment, redundant components, tyres etc, can also be included in this. Contaminants can be removed by evaporation. Recently, a tendency has been noticed in the farmers that they have decreased the use of potassium and phosphorus as fertilisers in soil and have increased the use of urea to gain high productivity without caring for its ill effects on soil. In nature, there are radioactive minerals that contribute to soil pollution such as radionuclides of radon-222 and Radium -226, Thorium, Uranium, isotopes of Potassium (K-40) and Carbon (C-14) are commonly found in soil, rock, water and air. Sewage Sludge Soil Pollution Nerve Agent Organophosphorus Compound Sulphur Mustard These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. Industrial and Mining Wastes: Can You Recycle Frying Pans? When pollutants in the air such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide mix with rain acid rain occurs, which has been found to impact soil negatively by dissolving important nutrients and even changing the soil’s structure. Sources of Soil Contamination There are many different sources of soil contamination. The operations cause a change of the landscape and expose the previously undisturbed soils to the elements of weather. Soil pollution is caused by man-made, harmful chemicals penetrating the earth and causing deterioration. The surface so obtained is used for housing or sports field. For example, in the US, domestic wastage is 50 kg/person /day. These soil polluting materials include solid waste like ash, glass, fruits and vegetables, papers, clothes, plastics, rubber, leather, metals, etc. All of these radionuclides emit gamma radiations, which are also harmful to the soil. Acid rain damages the basic properties of the soil. These chemical pollutants or bioactive chemicals are also called Creeping Deaths. Radiation -106 and Rhodium -106, Iodine-131, Barium-40, Lanthan-40, Serium-144, etc, reach the radioactive waste and mud produced by nuclear testing laboratories. At times, natural accumulation of chemicals results in soil pollution while sometimes natural processes also raise pollutant toxicity and soil pollution level. Today, there is an urgent need to save this limited resource from pollution to ensure adequate availability of habitats and food items. _taboola.push({ So, the soil can be categorised as an extremely rare (very limited) resource. It is also caused due to sewer lines leakage in the subsurface of soil. 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