This shows that adaptation to climate change strategies is a fundamental factor for their living as agriculture is the only source of income the majorities of them. The most commonly used methods of maintaining soil fertility in the district are using organic fertilizer and agroforestry. (2010), Review of the Current Science of Climate Change Tourism and the Implications of Climate Change: Issues and Actions Bridging Tourism Theory and Practice, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Vol. According to this source, only 18% of households in rural areas of Ethiopia are headed by woman due to natural and social-related factors including death and separation of the couples. Even if the levels of greenhouse gasses were kept constant at the existing values, the climate change would continue to pose threat in the coming decades due to the inertia of the climate system (Camino, 2010; Oswald and McNeil, 2013) regardless of mitigation measures (Mertz et al., 2009; IPCC, 2013). Thank you for taking your time to send in your valued opinion to Science X editors. part may be reproduced without the written permission. This n clearly concords with the result obtained through key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Accordingly, out of the total respondents of the study, 291 (82.9%) of them indicated that they have carried out various climate changes adaptation activities in their localities, while the remaining 60 respondents (17.1%) of them have not carried out adaptation activities due to several reasons (see determinants of climate change adaption strategies section). (2013) and Tessema et al. Kothari (2004) states that an application of this model is essential to identify the influence of the independent variables on the outcome variable. APO (2004), “National regional state of Oromia Adama project office. https://phys.org/news/2019-10-ethiopia-climate-necessitates-strategies.html Most rural people live in the highlands and middle-highlands, which comprise only one-third of the country, and this population tends to be . The analysis was based on the records of observed meteorological data and the future projected from the CMIP5 model under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Hargreaves, H., Micheal, O. and Connell Roman, J. To collect qualitative data focus group discussions, key informant interviews and field observations were also used. According to Finance and Economic Development Office of the District (FEDAD) (2014), in Adama District there are about 29 sectoral offices, 37 kebeles (smallest administrative units), 4 towns and 18 NGOs having their own mandates and responsibilities. Simple random sampling technique was used because the researchers thought that the sampling frames are somewhat homogeneous. Adama is one of the agriculturally rich districts of East Shewa zone. The majority of these families work as a team and they exchange ideas all the time. The study found out that 85% of smallholder farmers were practicing diverse types of climate change adaptation strategies. A Climate Trend Analysis of Ethiopia. 12 No. The full terms of this licence may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode. (2017) has conducted a study on climate change adaptation issues in Arsi Negelle district – central rift valley region of Ethiopia. Food Security Context: Complex Patterns of Climate, Climate Change, and Livelihoods. We’ve been on the ground fighting hunger in Ethiopia since 2004, helping families access more food, earn steady incomes, build resilience against unpredictable weather patterns and survive emergencies like the 2011 Horn of Africa hunger crisis, when drought put 13 million people in the region at risk of starvation. (2013). Do equations for groundwater flow refer to water density? "Huge investment in land restoration in Ethiopia has provided a multitude of ecosystem service benefits," said Wuletawu Abera, a scientist at CIAT and the study's lead author. Thus, some questions were adopted from previously tested questionnaires by modifying them in a way that they fit the need and the context of this manuscript. (College of Development Studies, Center for Food Security Studies. You can unsubscribe at any time and we'll never share your details to third parties. "Various land restoration practices and technologies provide various degrees of success, but they are site-specific. The country‟s adaptive capacity is constrained by limited livelihood options for the majority of the population, inadequate ability to withstand or absorb disasters and the prevailing biophysical shocks it faces. Researchers say their work can help policymakers tailor future restoration actions to specific ecosystem needs. This gave the assistants the opportunity to help the respondents who cannot read and write. This document is subject to copyright. Rural livelihood systems – crop cultivation, pastoralism, and agro-pastoralism – … This shows that even though there is high variability in the ages of the sampled households, they are generally within the productive age that can fully and efficiently engage in agricultural activities. Cereals and pulses accounted for 96% of the cultivated land (CSA, 2012). As it can be seen from Table 4, out of the total respondents, the majority (36.8%) of them have lived in study area for about 41–50 years. Thomson Reuters Foundation/Sebastien Malo. To cement the existing research gap, this study, therefore, set out to analyze the major determinants of adaptation strategies to climate change practiced by the smallholder farmers in Adama district. In fact, during the field observation it was clearly noted that as a result of huge community mobilizations, several promising works have been carried out. Climate change has far-reaching implications to the Ethiopian farmers as the majority of the people practice rain-fed crop production. As it has been hypothesized, the result indicated that those households that can read and write have higher probability of undertaking climate change adaptation practices as compared to the households that cannot read and write holding other factors constant. On average, the various land restoration practices have cut soil loss by a range of 45 to 80 percent, and runoff by 38 to 90 percent, while all methods have helped improve organic carbon stocks in the soils. To enhance the smallholder farmers’ adaptive capacity of climate change, concerted efforts should be made by government institutions, individual farmers, farmers’ cooperatives, non-governmental organizations and private investors. The Abbay River Basin, which originates in Ethiopia, is a major tributary and main source of the Nile River Basin. Finally, the authors would like to acknowledge Temesgen Chibsa, lecturer at Addis Ababa University, for editing the language. The result from binary logistic regression model showed that age and sex of household head, as well as their education, family size, access to agricultural extension services and training on climate change significantly influence the practices of adaptation measures. 3. Literate farmers are more responsive with regard to their farming technologies and they have better access to the scientific information compared to the illiterate farmers. Belay et al. To maintain the reliability and validity, the instruments have been reviewed by experts of the field. As much as possible suitable conditions were set for the discussants so allow them to discuss issues under investigation in their own languages. Both primary and secondary data sources were used to address the objectives of the study. "If a landscape tends to increase runoff, then its ability to store water in soils and vegetation is lower," said Abera. With the guidance of the kebele chairpersons, elderly people, agricultural extension workers multiple field visits were conducted in sampled kebeles. In other words, smallholder farmers who have access to professional advice from extension workers are more likely to practice climate change adaptation strategies compared to those who do not get access to professional advice. 535-549. The data collection tools were household survey questionnaire, focus group discussion, key informant interview and observation. Medical Xpress covers all medical research advances and health news, Tech Xplore covers the latest engineering, electronics and technology advances, Science X Network offers the most comprehensive sci-tech news coverage on the web. We do not guarantee individual replies due to extremely high volume of correspondence. This implies that most of the rural farming communities do not make use of the information provided by the stations which adversely affects them to carry out adaptation practices. Adama master plan revision project: a brief of Adama city, The role of education in the adoption of chemical fertilizer under different socio-economic environments in Kenya, Smallholder farmers’ adaptation to climate change and determinants of their adaptation decisions in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia, Review of the Current Science of Climate Change Tourism and the Implications of Climate Change: Issues and Actions Bridging Tourism Theory and Practice, Ethiopian agricultural sample survey 2011/2012, Volume IV, Report on land utilization, Statistical Bulletin 532. The duration of the stay in study area has significant implications in identifying historical profile of climate change and its adaptation practices. Some of the major crops produced in the district are teff, wheat, barely, maize, sorghum and bean. As Arsi Negelle district is close to Adama district, the proportions of smallholder farmers practicing climate change adaptations strategies are similar with this study. (2010). To include all important variables in data collection instruments, several research works were also reviewed (Deressa et al., 2011; Tazeze et al., 2012; Tessema et al., 2013; Belay et al., 2017). In the last decade, Ethiopia has invested more than US$1.2 billion annually in restoring landscapes in several regions of the country. The kebeles were selected in such a way that they can be representative of the district in biophysical, agricultural practices, climate change adaptation practices and socio-economic aspects. As indicated in Figure 1, it is located between 8°33'35′N–8°38′46"N latitudes and 39°10′57′E–39°30'15′E longitudes. But restoration has been underway for decades, with most restoration projects focusing on reducing soil erosion and runoff, the study shows. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management. This further enables them to have exposure and practice adaptation to climate change in their farming level. Land areas are both a source and sink of carbon dioxide, but as a whole they absorb more than they release. The study also aims at examining the ongoing climate change adaptations strategies used by smallholder farmers in the study area. 1, pp. IPCC (2014b), “Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. "More runoff, less storage, and less evapotranspiration suggest the landscape is more degraded and vice versa. Scientific communities agree that the change in climate is mainly attributed to anthropogenic factors (Winkler, 2010; Ofuoku, 2011; IPCC, 2014b). By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Privacy Policy 52 No. Triangulated with thematic analysis, descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression model were used for the analysis. Identifications of independent variables were carried out based on the existing literatures and knowledge of the study area about climate change adaptation strategies practiced by the rural farming communities. PDF | On Jan 26, 2019, Dessalegn Lamesegn published Review on effects of climate change on livestock production in Ethiopia | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate This model is the relevant statistical model when the dependent variable is dummy in its nature. 5G and future 6G terahertz absorbed by water vapour = heating? Ethiopia also has a long history of natural disasters with recurrent droughts and flooding. 2, pp. The shortage of documented data about climate change adaptation in Africa including Ethiopia has been also acknowledged by McSweeney et al. Relating agricultural practices with qualification of farmers, Asfaw and Admassie (2004) state that for agricultural productivity to be enhanced educational status of farmers has to be enhanced as it plays a significant role in applying adaptation activities. 83-104. According to the data, the study area is relatively characterized by households with larger family size indicating the potential for the increment in population size in the study area. This site uses cookies to assist with navigation, analyse your use of our services, and provide content from third parties. Climate change is already considered a threat multiplier, exacerbating existing problems, including conflicts. 3 No. Deressa, T.T., Hassan, R.M. The problem is further aggravated by the existing challenges such as poverty, high unemployment, inequality, complex degradation of resources, poor dissemination of information, shortage of educated human resources, ecosystem disturbance and recurrent disasters. googletag.cmd.push(function() { googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-1449240174198-2'); }); Pressured by population increases and climate change, Ethiopia's lands have experienced severe degradation. Recent research led by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) takes stock of Ethiopia's major restoration projects and investigates their impact on ecosystem services. Aklilu, A. and Alebachew, A. With the unavoidability of significant climate change impacts through mitigation approach (Farber, 2011), adaptation is a necessity as its effects manifest relatively almost immediately (Fussel, 2007). (Water Utilization in Agriculture: Water Research Commission, Pretoria. 463-476. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCCSM-01-2019-0002. This development status makes the country more vulnerable to climate variability and change. There is no-one-size-fits-all solution.". According to Table 3, some of the respondents (36.5%) have not gone beyond Grades 1–4 level of education, whereas about 29.1% of the respondents are those who cannot write and read. Di Falco, S., Yesuf, M. and Kohlin, G. (2009), Adaptation to Climate Change and Food Production in the Nile Basin, Ethiopia. (2017). Researchers looked at how specific restoration methods influenced ecosystem services. Most of the strategies identified by the respondents target physical activities as they are meant for increasing crop production. Printed on recycled paper. CSA (2012), “Ethiopian agricultural sample survey 2011/2012”, Volume IV, Report on land utilization, Statistical Bulletin 532. The term “Adama” is said to have originated from an Oromo word “Adaamii,” the name of a tree species that was abundantly growing in the area (Figure 1). In a typical year, Earth’s land areas take up more than 20% of the greenhouse gases put into the air by human activity. Hurgesa Hundera Hirpha can be contacted at: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCCSM-01-2019-0002, http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode, Takes the value of 0 for male and 1 for female, Less than six family members takes 0 and 1 otherwise, Less than 40 years old takes 0 and 1 otherwise, Takes the value of 0 if unmarried and 0 for otherwise, Cannot read and write takes 0 and 1 otherwise, Lived in the study area for less than 40 years takes 0 and 1 otherwise, Have access to training takes 0 and 1 otherwise, Have access to information takes 0 and 1 otherwise, Do not have any contact takes the value of 0 and 1 otherwise. The participants who participated in the questionnaire were excluded from key informant. 5, pp. Farber, D. (2011), “The challenge of climate change adaptation: learning from national planning efforts in Britain, China, and the USA”, Journal of Environmental Law, Oxford University Press., Vol. These groups of young farmers would prefer to combine both local knowledge and conventional science to obtain good yields. Future projections also often lack consistency … Kothari, C.R. Ethiopia is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and the unpredictability of climate variability. (2013), “Farm level adaptation to climate change: the case of farmer’s in the Ethiopian highlands”, Environmental Management, Vol. Separately, however, these methods did not have much impact, suggesting an integrated land management approach is needed to boost all ecosystem services. 1 No. 251-265. This scenario limits the probability of undertaking climate change adaptation techniques as training is believed to be an essential input for implementing new technologies. World Bank, Washington, DC. Regarding the contact with agricultural extension services per month, only about one fourth of the respondents reported that they have access to advices of agricultural officers (Table 4). Accordingly, most of the comments received from the experts were related to repetition and length of some questions of the questionnaire. Thus, the study revealed that access to the expertise of agricultural extension workers significantly determines the level of climate change adaptation activities of smallholder farmers (Table 5). Thus, farmers with large family members have higher probability of practicing adaptation activities. Your feedback will go directly to Science X editors. Nowadays, climate change is the most critical global concern as it is affecting all nations and regions of the world differently depending on their contexts. (2011), “Climate change and variability in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review of current and future trends and impacts on agriculture and food security”, Environment, Development and Sustainability, Vol. This appears to be s logical to collect data pertinent to climate change and its adaptation practices from communities who lived in the area for longer period of time as they can easily provide climate related data over the past 30 years. (2011), “Rural farmers’ perception of climate change in central agricultural zone of Delta State, Nigeria”, Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. Land cover and vegetation in the Abbay River Basin is highly susceptible to climate change. Accordingly, the focus group discussants mainly focused on crop-related activities and soil and water conservation practices as adaptation strategies. As it was hypothesized, access to agricultural extension services also enhances the probability of undertaking climate change adaptation activities. The result indicated that the majority of the smallholder farmers use at least one climate change adaptation strategy in their local areas though the strategy is generally weak. “As we’ve continued to pour more and more carbon dioxide into our atmo… During the analysis and interpretation, the data collected from both qualitative and quantitative methods were cross-checked, sorted, summarized and categorized into themes. According to some studies (Deressa et al., 2008; Jensen, 2011; IPCC, 2014b), the observed climate change would make even people face losses in terms of their daily activities and routines, change in planting seasons, experience decline in crop yield and biomass production, encounter increased risk of food shortage and famine. Winkler, H. (2010), Taking Action on Climate Change: Long Term Mitigation Scenarios for South Africa, Print Communication: South Africa. Hurst, M. Jensen, N. Pedersen, S. Sharma, A. and Zambriski, J. The results of the seasonal sta… It is important to note that families with large members develop the work plan either on daily or weekly basis based on their ability to coordinate and facilitate their activities depending on the agricultural calendar. How will climate change shift agro-ecological zones and impact African agriculture? The UN Climate Change Conference COP 25 (2 – 13 December 2019) took place under the Presidency of the Government of Chile and was held with logistical support from the Government of Spain. Adama district is bordered in the south by Arsi zone, in the southwest by Koka Reservior, on the west by Lome, on the north by the Afar Region and on the east by Boset district. Your email address is used only to let the recipient know who sent the email. Similarly, question regarding the major climate change adaptation strategies being implemented by the local communities were presented to the participants in focus group discussions conducted at various kebeles of study area. In recent years environment has become a key issue in Ethiopia. Maponya, P. and Mpandeli, S. (2012), “Climate change and agricultural production in South Africa: impacts and adaptation options”. This study examines change and trends of 21 climate extremes of temperature and precipitation over Ethiopia by using indices from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). Addis Ababa: Ethiopia, Central Statistical Agency. Moreover, insect infestations and epidemics, such as AWD, are common and the country is ranked among the eleven most risk prone countries globally in 2019, according to the INFORM index. 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