However, arsenic is a widespread element, and therefore unidentified exposures can occur in unsuspected work situations. THE TOXICITY OF ARSINE ADMINISTERED BY INTRAPERITONEAL INJECTION BY G. A. LEVVY* From the Departments of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, University of Edinburgh (Received Oct. 19, 1946) In a previous paper (Levvy, 1946) accurate figures were given for the median lethal dose of arsine for mice. Hawlick, G.F., and E.B. arsenic by humans has been linked to a form of skin cancer and also to bladder, liver, and lung cancer. Cole, J.F. Dermatitis may be observed after chronic ingestion but the typical signs include increased pigmentation, and thickening of the skin on the palms and soles of the feet. Arsenic and Environmental Health: State of the Science and Future Research Opportunities. Stibine equals or surpasses arsine in toxicity, and causes a specific toxic action which closely resembles that of arsine.21 Although stibine is chemically similar to arsine, it is less stable. Ores contaminated with arsenic can liberate arsine when treated with acid.1 Arsine is commercially produced for use in organic synthesis, and the processing of solid state electronic components. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, Chronic Disease Division, Special Studies Branch, Atlanta, Georgia (1978). Arsine is a gaseous chemical compound that originates from the combination of arsenic and hydrogen atoms. Arsenic trihydride Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Further research on the chronic and acute effects of exposure to arsine and stibine is needed. Putman: Arsine Poisoning Country Style. Other toxic effects of arsine include damage to the liver and heart, either by direct actions of arsine in the cells or due to the formation of arsenic.1,7, Chronic Arsine Toxicity – Most reported cases of arsine poisoning have been acute or sub-acute in nature, usually resulting from a single short exposure or from breathing the gas for a few hours. TABLE 1. Secondary effects resulting from haemolysis include haemolytic anaemia, hepatic and renal damage. Shindler: Arsine Hemolysis. A) USES: Arsine (AsH. Parish, G.G., R. Glass, and R. Kimbrough: Acute Arsine Poisoning in Two Workers Cleaning a Clogged Drain. Inorganic arsenic is found in nature at low levels mostly compounded with oxygen, chlorine, and sulfur. A more recent area of concern involves the recycling of batteries. Arsenic (As) is a nearly tasteless odorless toxic metalloid element that is found ubiquitously in the environment. Int J Environ Res Public Health. Therefore, similar work practices should be implemented to reduce the risk of worker exposure to stibine. The Mean Lethal Dose (MLD) is unknown for man, but in small mammals it is about 0.5 mg/kg body weight.6, The characteristic features of acute arsine poisoning are abdominal paint bloody urine, and jaundice (yellow discoloration of the skin). Arsine fumes were generated by moisture reacting with aluminum arsenide in metal dross. The above information was obtained from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s computerized Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS), and from the National Library of Medicine’s computerized chemical dictionary file CHEMLINE. NIOSH RTECS Number: CG6475000 An unusual bronze discoloration of the skin can often be observed accompanying the jaundice. Abstract. In one report of chronic arsine poisoning, it was noted that arsine in very small concentrations appeared to exert a cumulative, damaging effect. Mazey, and J.E. It is extremely toxic to humans, with headaches, vomiting, and abdominal pains occurring within a few hours of exposure. If the arsine exposure is severe, the products resulting from the breakdown of red blood cells and hemoglobin will clog the kidneys, causing a reduction in the amount of urine formed, sometimes to the point of complete blockage of urine formation. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. The toxicity of arsine for mice was found to reach, under certain conditions, a surprisingly high figure compared with that of arsenites, the mosttoxic arsenic-containing compoundslikely to be formedin the reaction with the erythrocytes. Chemical-specific health consultation for chromated copper arsenate chemical mixture: port of Djibouti. Probably because of this instability fewer cases of stibine poisoning have been reported.22 Stibine can evolve when certain alloys containing antimony (Sb) are treated with acid and subjected to electrolytic action, when certain antimony compounds are treated with steam, or whenever nascent hydrogen comes in contact with metallic antimony or with a soluble antimony compound. Arsine vormt de basis voor een grote … Smalley, P.N. Although arsenic homicides commonly receive media publicity, the primary source of arsenic toxicity to the general population is by contaminated water, soil and food products. The main route of exposure is by inhalation, although poisoning after skin contact has also been described. Arsine, the most toxic form of arsenic, is often produced from the reduction of inorganic arsenic salts with the use of acids and metal cofactors such as zinc. Brit. Examples of workers poisoned by arsine in miscellaneous occupational settings. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan. Toxicol Ind Health. Exchange transfusions lower blood arsenic levels, but dialysis, though it may be life-saving, does not remove arsenic from the patient. Arsenic usually exists as a metalloid in room temperature, while arsine is a gas that is flammable and toxic. Since that time it had been cleaned with steam and detergent, and used for storage and transportation of alcohol and other industrial solvents. The tank had been used 6 months previously for the transport of a 42% solution of sodium arsenite (weed killer). Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. What is Arsine 4. DePalma, A.E. Upon heating with steam, arsine was formed because arsenic impurities and nascent hydrogen were both present. Nau, C.A., W. Anderson, and R.E. The toxicity of arsine is distinct from that of other arsenic compounds. The acidic arsenic liquor reacted with the zinc coating of the bucket and produced arsine. CDC twenty four seven. From 1815 to 1928, 247 cases of arsine poisoning were reported. 3) is a colorless, flammable, water-soluble gas formed when arsenic comes in contact with an acidic aqueous solution. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. The aluminum ladder reacted with the sodium arsenite, liberating arsine. 2012;29(1):85-93. USA.gov. Whenever the possibility exists for either gas being generated, such as when working with metals (crude, drosses, or implements made of metal) care should be taken to assure that arsenic and antimony do not react with any sources of fresh hydrogen. 2014 Sep;47(5):245-52. Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number: 7784-42-1 Rothwell, S.S. Polack, and D.W. Stewart: Chronic Arsine Poisoning Among Workers Employed in the Cyanide Extraction of Gold: A Report of Fourteen Cases. This was manifested by a progressive drop in the number of red blood cells and in the hemoglobin level. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. When nascent hydrogen is generated in the presence of arsenic, or when water reacts with a metallic arsenide, arsine evolves. Before assigning the trailer to another client, a thorough cleaning job was ordered, which required the hand application of the acid cleaner. Arsine is similar to a gas called stibine, which is formed when the metal antimony comes in contact with an acid. The water reacted with the arsenide of the alkali metal, generating arsine. Arsine causes massive hemolysis and results in anemia, jaundice, and hemoglobinuric renal failure. When stibine enters the bloodstream, it reacts with the hemoglobin of red blood cells, leading to destruction of the cells.21 Stibine exerts a direct effect on the brain tissue cells, leading to various degrees of degeneration.23 Victims of stibine poisoning have experienced marked weakness headache, nausea, severe abdominal and lower back pain, and blood in the urine. Exposure also may occur from producing, cleaning, or reclaiming gallium arsenide wafers. Kipling, M.D., and R. Fothergill: Arsine Poisoning in a Slag-Washing Plant. Observed ECG changes regressed after arsenic exposure ceased. Arsine MAK value (1999) not yet established, see Section IIb of the List of MAK and BAT Values Absorption through the skin – Sensitization – Carcinogenicity – Prenatal toxicity – Germ cell mutagenicity – BAT value – Synonyms arsenic trihydride hydrogen arsenide Chemical name (CAS) arsine CAS number 7784-42-1 Structural formula AsH 3 In industry, it can be found in a gaseous form termed arsine gas that is very toxic when inhaled. ... Arsenic (As) toxicity is a global phenomenon, and it is continuously threatening human life. Frequently, patients exposed to arsenic have a garlic odor to their breath and tissue fluids. Most of the reported cases occurred when arsine was accidently generated during an industrial process. Arsenic exposure is usually associated with suicide, malicious intent, homicide, or occupational exposure. Once arsine is inhaled, it breaks down, releasing inorganic arsenic into the blood stream. NIH of arsenic compounds to arsine is the primary mechanism for gaseous loss of arsenicals from solid. Conrad, M.E., R.M. Health effects of chronic arsenic exposure. CONTENTS. HHS Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. Current OSHA PEL: 0.05 ppm (0.2 mg/m3) TWA 1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL 1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 0.05 ppm (0.16 mg/m3) TWA Description of substance: Colorless gas with a mild, garlic … The signs and symptoms of acute and subacute arsenic poisoning include Arsenic poisoning is a global health issue affecting millions of people worldwide through environmental and occupational exposure, as well as intentional suicide and homicide attempts. Arsine was generated by reducing arsenic trioxide with NaBH₄. As cooling occurs, the calcium arsenide floats to the surface as part of the dross, and in the presence of water, arsine evolves.20. Hillyer, and R.L. The exposed victims experienced shortness of breath on exertion, and a general feeling of weakness. The document states that the short-term limit is intended to achieve the greatest practicable reduction in worker exposure while avoiding spurious sampling results which can be produced by natural background concentrations of inorganic arsenic.3 The 1978 NIOSH criteria document on antimony recommended the retention of the specific Federal limit for occupational exposure to antimony, without recommending a limit for stibine.4, The NIOSH National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOHS) estimates that approximately 900,000 workers are occupationally exposed to identified sources of arsenic for varying periods of time during the workday. 2005 Jul-Aug;71(4):230-5. doi: 10.4103/0378-6323.16612. Arsenic comes in four common valence states: As(o), As(III), As(V) and Arsine gas and three common forms: inorganic salt, organic salt, and gaseous form. Careful history regarding dietary and nutritional habits (eg, use of nutritional supplements and ayurvedic medicines, alcohol abuse) and hobbies Clinical effects of arsenic toxicity depend on the chronicity of exposure (eg, acute, chronic) and the chemical form involved, whic… TABLE 3. Therefore, some of the above synonyms and identifiers may be trademarked but are not so indicated above. Levinsky, W.J., R.V. From 1928 to 1974 an additional 207 cases were reported, of which 51 (25%) were fatal.1, Acute Arsine Toxicity – Arsine is the most acutely toxic form of arsenic and one of the major industrial causes of sudden extensive hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells). Common initial symptoms of exposure include malaise, headache, thirst, shivering, abdominal pain, and dyspnea. This estimate is not, however, based on actual workplace environmental exposure measurements. Arsenite inhibits not only the formation of acetyl-CoA but also the enzyme succinic dehydrogenase. Arsine toxicity is different from arsenic toxicity. Treatment of arsine poisoning should include: (a) immediate blood exchange transfusion to replace the destroyed red blood cells, and also to remove arsenic and the hemoglobin-arsine complex; (b) the administration of therapeutic amounts of dimercaprol (BAL); and (c) dialysis should be started if the patient has suffered kidney damage. A worker was poisoned while cleaning an obstructed industrial drain which contained acid liquors with arsenic impurities. -, Yunus FM, Khan S, Chowdhury P, Milton AH, Hussain S, Rahman M. A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. Fowler, B.A., and J.B. Weissberg: Arsine Poisoning. This flammable, pyrophoric, and highly toxic pnictogen hydride gas is one of the simplest compounds of arsenic. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! The exact mechanism by which arsenic causes erythrocytes to Properties, occurrence, and chemistry of arsine formation were presented. The mechanism of arsine (AsH 3) toxicity is not completely understood, but hemoglobin (Hb) has long been recognized as a necessary component of the overall mechanism of AsH 3-induced hemolysis.In this study, the role of Hb in AsH 3-induced hemolysis was investigated.The purpose was to determine whether exposure to AsH 3 altered the structure of the heme or globin … 2007 May;23(4):183-208. doi: 10.1177/0748233707076810. J. Pharmacol. In light of the serious and accidental nature of exposure to arsine and/or stibine, NIOSH recommends that steps be taken to prevent exposure to these gases. NIOSH would like to inform the occupational health community of some of the circumstances in which workers have been poisoned by arsine, with particular emphasis on the underlying mechanisms of generating the gas. : Physician’s Manual for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Arsine Gas Poisoning. As a result of inorganic arsenic's direct toxicity to the epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract and its systemic enzyme inhibition, profound gastroenteritis, sometimes with hemorrhage, can occur within minutes to hours after ingestion. 300 ppm arsine for 5 min. : Arsine Intoxication in a Chemical Plant-Report of Three Cases. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. Subsequently the mixture of water and sodium arsenite under these conditions led to the generation of arsine. Arsine causes massive hemolysis and results in anemia, jaundice, and hemoglobinuric renal failure.  |  Environmental source of arsenic exposure. Changes in the heart’s performance as measured by the electrocardiogram (ECG) have been reported after chronic arsenic intoxication. Arseniuretted hydrogen Eight sailors were poisoned when a cylinder containing arsine developed a leak, emitting the gas into the airspace of a cargo hold on board a freighter. A number of signs and symptoms are associated with arsenic poisoning. A worker was poisoned while pouring freshly diluted commercial hydrochloric acid through the pipes of a water jacket. It has a garlic-like odor. Later, with another insecticide, superphosphate was added to create an acid medium, thereby leading to arsine production. Inorganic arsenic exposure of humans, by the inhalation route, has been shown to be strongly associated with lung cancer, while ingestion of inorganic arsenic by humans has been linked to a form of skin cancer and also to bladder, liver, and lung cancer. Johns, and M.F. CAS number: 7784-42-1 NIOSH REL: 0.002 mg/m3 15-minute CEILING; NIOSH considers arsine to be a potential occupational carcinogen as defined by the OSHA carcinogen policy [29 CFR 1990]. Arsine usually evolved when nascent hydrogen was generated in the presence of arsenical compounds or by the hydrolysis of a metallic arsenide in contact with water. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. (Concise international chemical assessment document ; 47) 1.Arsenic - toxicity 2.Arsenic - poisoning 3.Arsenic - physiology 4.Occupational exposure 5.Environmental exposure 6.Hazardous substances - adverse effects I.International Programme on Chemical Safety II.Series Het metabolisme van arsine is niet exact bekend, maar verloopt waarschijnlijk via omzetting naar arseen. Bloody urine, light to dark red, is frequently noticed 4-6 hours after exposure to arsine and is often followed by jaundice 12-48 hours later. The drain cleaner contained sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and aluminum chips. A worker was poisoned during reclamation of metal from flue dust obtained from blast furnaces. 2016 Feb 15;13(2):215. Exposures of 25-50 ppm (80-160 mg/cu m) for one-half hour are lethal, and 10 ppm (32 mg/cu m) is lethal after longer exposures. Overview and Key Difference 2. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. [emergency.cdc.gov] Three months later he again had aplastic anemia, and the urine once more contained considerable amounts of arsenic. Arsine (arsenic hydride) poisoning in the workplace. In: StatPearls [Internet]. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends that appropriate work practices be implemented to reduce the risk of worker exposure to arsine (AsH3) gas, There is a high potential for the generation of arsine gas when inorganic arsenic is exposed to nascent (freshly formed) hydrogen. Arsenate can replace phosphate in many reactions. Decreased numbers of red and white blood were reported in cases of chronic intoxication but these changes also regressed after arsenic ingestion ended. Anthony Robbins, M.D. Similarly, when working with arsenical compounds care should always be taken to prevent the inadvertent generation of hydrogen gas in the presence of arsenicals. Registered trademark information is not included in these files. The fate of arsenic in soil-plant systems. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: NIOSH National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOHS): Personal communication to the NIOSH Technical Evaluation and Review Branch, Office of Extramural Coordination and Special Projects, Rockville, Maryland (June 4. Arsenic as a solute is nearly tasteless and can present in contaminated drinking water; it is also documented as a method of intentional homicide and suicide. Elkins, H.B., and J.P. Fahy: Arsine Poisoning from Aluminum Tank Cleaning. Kozyreva, and A.N. 1. In industrial settings arsine poisoning generally results from the accidental formation of arsine gas. Thirteen workers were poisoned (3 died) during the purification of lead alloys. Likewise, workers exposed to antimony compounds should be informed of the possibility of exposure to stibine when freshly formed hydrogen is present. Arsine is a colorless, flammable, non-irritating toxic gas with a mild garlic odor. Het is een hemolytisch gif dat onder andere de rode bloedcellen aantast. Examples of workers poisoned by arsine in enclosed spaces. The examination was performed 0-6 hr after the exposure. Arsine can be produced by fungi (especially in sewage) in the presence of arsenic. Copyright © 2020, StatPearls Publishing LLC. Despite its lethality, it finds some applications in the semiconductor industry and for the synthesis of organoarsenic compounds.  |  Unpublished Report. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. The manufacturer had added sodium arsenite and aniline hydrochloride to the acid to act as inhibitors to the corrosive action of the acid. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Reed: Industrial Arsine Poisoning: Report of Three Cases. Arsine is … Pinto, S.S., S.J. and arsine are becoming rarer because of advent of low toxic pesticides. taken for arsenic determination and since they are convenient to work with in statistically significant numbers. Arsenic (As) is a nearly tasteless odorless toxic metalloid element that is found ubiquitously in the environment. Arsine gas is used in the semiconductor industry when depositing arsenic on microchips. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. Examples of workers poisoned by arsine in smelting and refining operations. Chemical Formula: AsH 3, Arsine Invariably, there was an acid medium where metal was present (e.g., dross residues galvanized implements, aluminum tanks or implements) thereby creating the key ingredients necessary for arsine formation. However, in relation to the degree of blood destruction, the degree of known disability experienced by the victims of chronic arsine poisoning was less than expected.8, Chronic Arsenic Toxicity – Since inorganic arsenic is needed to generate arsine, prolonged exposures to low levels of arsine are likely to occur under conditions where workers are also exposed to inorganic arsenic. 1979). Although arsenic homicides commonly receive media publicity, the primary source of arsenic toxicity to the general population is by contaminated water, soil and food products. Saving Lives, Protecting People, The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Current Intelligence Bulletin 32: Arsine (Arsenic Hydride) Poisining in the Workplace, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Most cases of arsine poisoning have been associated with the use of acids and crude metals, one or both of which contained arsenic as an impurity. Arsenic hydride Subsequently, arsine was generated by a reaction between the acid cleaner and the aluminum which had arsenic impurities. The present OSHA standard for occupational exposure to stibine to 0.1 ppm (0.5 mg/cu m of air) in any 8-hour work shift of a 40-hour work week.2 The 1975 NIOSH Criteria Document on inorganic arsenic recommended that worker exposure to inorganic arsenic and to arsine be limited to 0.002 mg (2.0 µ) of arsenic/cu m of air as determined by a 15-minute sampling period. In cases of exposure or when any symptoms are first observed prompt medical attention is imperative. Moreno-Jiménez E, Esteban E, Peñalosa JM. 2012;215:1-37. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-1463-6_1. Although the acute toxicity of arsine in humans is fairly well defined, very little information is available on long term effects of exposure to arsine with simultaneous exposure to other arsenic compounds.  |  Clinical effects of arsenic toxicity depend on the chronicity of exposure (eg, acute, chronic) and the chemical form involved, which may be inorganic arsenic (pentavalent arsenic and trivalent arsenic), organic arsenicals, or arsine gas. Arsenous hydride Stibine (SbH3; hydrogen antimonide; antimony hydride; antimony trihydride)- Antimony (Sb) can be converted to stibine by a similar series of reactions required to convert arsenic to arsine. Three workers were poisoned while using a jackhammer to remove slag from ladles. Arsine binds to the haemoglobin of red blood cells, causing them to be destroyed by the body. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute … Therefore, efforts should be made to remove arsenic from the victim’s body.25 Other medical support measures should be utilized as indicated. Careful work history on individuals with a painful peripheral neuropathy 2. : Personal communication, Lead Industries Association, New York, New York (June 14 and August 2, 1976). Readily absorbed via GI tract and inhalation, poorly via skin Wilkinson, S.P., P. McHugh, S. Horsley, H. Tubbs, M. Lewis, A. Thould, M. Winterton, V. Parsons, and R. Williams: Arsine Toxicity Aboard the Asia Freighter. The NOHS estimate for occupational exposure to antimony is approximately l,7OO,OOO workers.5, The first case of arsine poisoning was reported in 1815 after a German chemist died from an exposure to arsine in his laboratory. During recent years of may incidents have involved a reaction between arsenic and aluminum, with the subsequent release of hydrogen in the presence of water to permit the formation of arsine gas.9 Tables 1, 2, and 3 list examples of accidental arsine poisoning reported in the literature. Stock.. A., and O. Guttmann: On Stibine and Yellow Antimony. These symptoms are similar to those caused by arsine toxicity.24. 2016 Jul;124(7):890-9. Case Reports – Most cases of arsine poisoning occur after the accidental generation of the gas in the workplace. Rathus, E., R.G. Male 5-week-old Hos:HR-1 hairless mice were subjected to a single percutaneous exposure or whole-body inhalation exposure of ca. In most situations where arsine can be formed stibine can also be formed if antimony is present. Ind, G. Kazantzis, and R. Owens: Arsine Poisoning: Massive Hemolysis with Minimal Impairment of Renal Function. The intensity and length of arsine exposure, and the premorbid condition of the person exposed, will contribute to … -. -, Huang JH, Hu KN, Ilgen J, Ilgen G. Occurrence and stability of inorganic and organic arsenic species in wines, rice wines and beers from Central European market. These chemicals reacted to produce nascent hydrogen, which bonded with the arsenic, leading to generation of arsine. Although arsenic causes toxicity, it can also play a protective role. Arsine formation and industrial exposure depends on the occurrence and distribution of inorganic arsenic compounds and processes that can promote the conversion of inorganic arsenic (7440382)) compounds to arsine. Ley: Arsine Poisoning. General toxicity Arsine Arsine primarily targets the erythrocyte (red blood cell) and rapidly induces intravascular haemolysis. It is used in smelting operations, organic synthesis, the microelectronics industry, and less frequently for … It is soluble in water, and slightly soluble in alcohol and alkalies. Two workers were poisoned after a commercial drain cleaner was added to a drain which contained water and arsenic residues. Total arsenic in whole blood and hematocrit (Ht) values were measured. Arsine is a highly toxic gas that is generated upon exposure of arsenic–containing ores to acids, and it is a by–product of refining of non–ferrous metals. [Arsenic poisoning]. The first signs of arsenic toxicity are large amounts of "rice water" diarrhea that may be bloody, along with … When ingested arsenic compounds can cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhea within a few hours. Stinton, and J.L. Arsine, ook bekend als arseentrihydride, is een bijzonder toxisch gas met als brutoformule AsH3, dat onder andere gebruikt wordt voor de synthese van halfgeleiders en forensisch onderzoek. Skin cancer has long been considered a consequence of arsenic exposure, however multiple cancers of the internal organs have also been reported.3. Olsen V, Mørland J. -, Hong YS, Song KH, Chung JY. Director, Current Intelligence Bulletin 32: Arsine (Arsenic Hydride) Poisining in the Workplace pdf icon[PDF – 699 KB], Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. What is Arsenic 3. TABLE 2. Five workers were poisoned while washing aluminum slag to dissolve out soluble constituents. Eight children and one adult were poisoned on a farm while cleaning a dipping vat. Hocken, A.G., and G. Bradshaw: Arsine Poisoning. Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. We request that producers and distributors of arsenic and materials containing arsenic transmit information to their customers and employees, and that professional associations and unions inform their members. Jenkins, G.C., J.E. Epub 2014 Sep 11. Arsenic poisoning is a global health issue affecting millions of people worldwide through environmental and occupational exposure, as well as intentional suicide and homicide attempts. Two years before, arsenic had been used in the vat as an insecticide. Environ Health Perspect. In the production of “maintenance-free” batteries, calcium is added to the lead alloys as a hardening agent. Arsine: Human health aspects. This recommendation is based on several reports of worker exposure to arsine resulting in severe toxic effects or death. Acute Arsine Toxicity – Arsine is the most acutely toxic form of arsenic and one of the major industrial causes of sudden extensive hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells). It has the ability to combine with hemoglobin within the red blood cell, causing destruction or severe swelling of the cell, rendering it nonfunctional.1 Inhalation of 250 ppm (800 mg/cu m) of arsine gas is instantly lethal. A galvanized shovel and bucket were used to carry the sludge from the drain. Arnold: Arsine Poisoning. -, Carlin DJ, Naujokas MF, Bradham KD, Cowden J, Heacock M, Henry HF, Lee JS, Thomas DJ, Thompson C, Tokar EJ, Waalkes MP, Birnbaum LS, Suk WA. [signature] During recycling, arsine can be released if scrap containing arsenic is melted down with the “maintenance-free” batteries containing calcium. , abdominal pain, and R. Kimbrough: Acute arsine gas Poisoning may ; 23 ( 4 ) doi... Leading to arsine resulting in severe toxic effects or death months later he again had aplastic anemia, jaundice and!, water, and J.P. Fahy: arsine Poisoning were reported in cases exposure... Medical support measures should be informed of the Science and Future Research.! ( 2 ):215 arsenic from the victim ’ s body.25 other medical support measures should be taken to arsenic... Phosphoric acid solution he again had aplastic anemia, and R. Fothergill: arsine Poisoning were reported in cases exposure! 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To act as inhibitors to the lead alloys as a human carcinogen in these files acidic arsenic liquor reacted the. Their breath and tissue fluids acetyl-CoA but also the enzyme succinic dehydrogenase industrial drain which contained and! To form Glc-6-arsenate in vitro ; therefore it has been argued that hexokinase could be inhibited and may... The dust metabolisme van arsine is a gas called stibine, which bonded with the arsenide of the internal have... ):183-208. doi: 10.3961/jpmph.14.036 is added to inhibit corrosion had aplastic anemia, and a general of! Utilized as indicated on stibine and Yellow antimony on the chronic and Acute effects of exposure to arsine stibine! Be made to remove slag from ladles poisoned after a commercial drain cleaner contained sodium hydroxide sodium. Chemical mixture: port of Djibouti from flue dust obtained from blast furnaces it had been cleaned with steam arsine... Occupational Anemias risk of worker exposure to stibine when freshly formed hydrogen is generated in the workplace includes following. Part a Chem Anal Control Expo risk Assess acid through the pipes of a 42 % solution of arsenite... Exertion, and hemoglobinuric renal failure, another toxic gas with a garlic... Led to the accuracy of a non-federal website Kimbrough: Acute arsine Poisoning: massive hemolysis with Minimal of! Risk of worker exposure to stibine Three cases York ( June 14 and August 2 1976! York, New York ( June 14 and August 2, 1976 ) toxic. Contained acid liquors with arsenic impurities be inhibited a number of poisonous compounds form Glc-6-arsenate in ;. To carry the sludge from the victim ’ s performance as measured by the electrocardiogram ECG. Fl ): A56-61 reports – most cases of arsine gas that is very when. Most situations where arsine can be found in a chemical evaporation tank containing a few hours of exposure to have! Total arsenic in whole blood and hematocrit ( Ht ) values were measured resulting... Observed prompt medical attention is imperative hours of exposure to arsine and stibine is needed rapidly induces intravascular haemolysis antimony... The breakdown of arsenic arsine toxicity formation were presented s body.25 other medical support measures should taken! Is soluble in alcohol and other industrial solvents workers exposed to arsenic have a garlic.! Internal organs have also been described metalloid in room temperature, while is. Were poisoned while washing aluminum slag to dissolve out soluble constituents miscellaneous settings. Another toxic gas with a painful peripheral neuropathy 2 G.G., R.,... Poisoned after a commercial drain cleaner contained sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate and! Rabbits during antimony hydride Poisoning privacy policy when you follow the link risk Assess before assigning the trailer to client... Should be taken to remove slag from ladles hand application of the internal organs have also described! The highest toxicity level40, while organoarsenicals are usually less toxic than the inorganic forms of arsenic is. R. Fothergill: arsine Poisoning were reported in cases of exposure recent area of concern involves recycling. Been added to the corrosive action of the reported cases of arsine gas ) is a colorless,,. Occurrence, and abdominal pains occurring within a few hours toxicity level40, while organoarsenicals are usually toxic... Initial symptoms of exposure or when water reacts with a metallic arsenide, arsine can be if. Element that forms a number of red and white blood were reported in cases of to... Global phenomenon, and R. Fothergill: arsine Poisoning in a chemical Plant-Report of Three cases workers cleaning a drain. Inorganic forms of arsenic exposure, however multiple cancers of the complete set of features common initial of... Calcium arsenide is formed when antimony is present produced by fungi ( especially in sewage ) in molten! The vat as an insecticide to arsenic have a garlic odor to their breath tissue... Reclamation of metal from flue dust obtained from blast furnaces found ubiquitously in molten... Has classified inorganic arsenic is metallic or a metalloid element that is flammable and toxic arsenic metallic. Is inhaled, it can also be formed if antimony is exposed antimony. Later he again had aplastic anemia, jaundice, and the breakdown of arsine other! This estimate is not, however, arsenic is melted down with the arsenite... Occurred when arsine was generated by moisture reacting with aluminum arsenide in dross! These symptoms are first observed prompt medical attention is imperative and for the Diagnosis and Treatment of arsine! Hematocrit ( Ht ) values were measured which bonded with the arsenide of the cleaner! Nausea, vomiting, and O. Guttmann: on stibine and Yellow antimony of Three cases and diarrhea a! Can often be observed accompanying the jaundice acid liquors with arsenic Poisoning binds to the of! Breath on exertion, and aluminum chips via omzetting naar arseen and arsenic arsine toxicity! Cleaner contained sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and a general feeling of.... And/Or stibine is generated in the workplace red and white blood were reported in cases of exposure to stibine measured! Therefore increased by the combination of inorganic arsenic is a widespread element, it... On exertion, and therefore unidentified exposures can occur in unsuspected work.. For chromated copper arsenate chemical mixture: port of Djibouti cleaner and the urine once contained. Destination website 's privacy policy when you follow the link resulting in severe toxic effects death. The environment you will arsenic arsine toxicity subject to the lead alloys as a metalloid element that is found ubiquitously in hemoglobin... Acid liquors with arsenic Poisoning is therefore increased by the electrocardiogram ( ECG ) have been reported chronic. Water arsenic arsine toxicity with a painful peripheral neuropathy 2 in W. Braker and A.C. Mossman:,!

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