Majority population in Lalitpur, Bungamati, Kirtipur. Among the Shresthas, since they are subdivided into two general sub-castes, the higher Chatharīya and the lower Pāñcthariya, one's marriage partner must be from the same grade as well. Therefore, while Rājopādhyāya Brahmins occupy the highest social position in the Hindu side, the Vajracharya (or Guru/Gu-Bhajus) form the head among the Buddhists. For Hindu Newars, Brahmans had formal precedence with Kshatriyas, which included the royal family and the various groups now known as Srēṣṭha who ran the administration of the Malla courts. Also listed is the approximate percentages of the major castes of Newars sampled within Kathmandu Valley. The Newar varna logic as stratified from the Hindu Brahmanic perspective place Shakya-Baré, Urāy among the Buddhists, and Pāncthariya Srēṣṭha, Tamrakar and Halwais among the Hindus among the dwija twice-born status as the core Vaishya castes of Newars who are highly specialized in trade and commerce. Its attempts to integrate the entire Newar status system into a national system was very awkward for all parties, and “often deficient or ambiguous and at variance with the self-assessment of the Newar castes.”. First introduced at the time of the Licchavis, the Newar caste system assumed its present shape during the medieval Malla period. We all respect each other. Economically, the position of the Newars was weakened by the diversion of Tibet trade from the Chumbi Valley route since 1850s A.D. and the competition with the Marwaris became all the stiffer since the end of the World War I. To these historically established and upper Srestha ranks, Chārtharīya’s efforts remain unacknowledged and hence are not counted among the Srestha fold. He became the first of the Ranas and his task was to establish the legitimacy of Ranas and secure his control over the land. 3. Ritual funeral specialists for Hindu Newars, Farmers from valley outskirts; not accepted as, Fishermen, sweepers, traditional executioners. If you agree to these terms, please click here. They are believed to be the true descendants of the various original settlers of the Kathmandu Valley—Licchavis, Ahirs, Kirata, Gopalas. [2] The social structure of Newars is unique as it is the last remaining example of a pre-Islamic North Indic civilisation in which Buddhist elements enjoy equal status with the Brahmanic elements. Marriage is, as a rule, patrilocal and monogamous. The Bajracharyas, who belong to the first group, are placed at the top of the hierarchy among the Buddhamargi Newars. For the non-Mongoloid hill 'Khas' tribe of the west who are in large part associated with the Gorkhali invaders, the term Partyā or Parbaté meaning hill-dweller is used in polite reference. [2]. There are no low and high caste in Nepal. They are the most dominant Newar caste that includes the old Newari aristocracy as well as the traditional land-owning and mercantile families. [9], Newars were not admitted in the army till 1951 A.D. -the year when the festival of Indra Jatra discontinued to be celebrated as "the Victory Day"— commemorating the conquest of the valley by the Gorkhali army. In some areas the rule of “seven generations” of descent is observed; members who fall within the common descent group of seven generations are restricted from intermarriage. Madhikarmi (Halwai), Māka, Mulmi, Bhadra, Kachhapati, Banepali, Deoju, Nyachhyon, Bijukchhe, Sivacharya, etc. Iron equipment makers, specially worked on cast iron. Within the Sresthas there are three hierarchically ranked, traditionally endogamous groups which describe themselves as i. Kshatriya or colloquially Chatharīya, ii. They are the most dominant Newar caste that includes the old Newari aristocracy as well as the traditional land-owning and mercantile families. There is also hierarchal division of caste system on the basis of occupation and their social position among the Newars which was started by a Malla king. The Chatharīya, for example, succeeded in producing the required social credentials to prove that the Chatharīya tharghar (families of noble extraction, and referred to as "asal Srestha") alone were "pure" Kshatriyas, where as similar claims by other Newar castes were not successful. He succeeded in introducing the caste system to a much greater degree and rigidity than Jayasthitimalla, the Malla king had done just over five hundred years before him. [23][24][25], Baré (Buddhist temple priests), Crafstmen, Advent of Khas/Gorkhali rulers and the Muluki Ain, Historical relation to other non-Newar Nepalis, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFGellner1986 (. Other rules further restrict social intermingling between the castes, but they tend to be treated more casually.[2]. [16] But the Jyapus remained united and never allowed themselves to be pushed into the position of serfdom of slavery as many non-Hindu tribes in the plains were forced to do. Pañchthariya or colloquially Shrestha, and iii. How can you ask this question? Historically, Newars in general divided non-Newar Nepalis into three general groups: Sae(n), Khae(n), Marsyā. Untouchability was encouraged, Class of Idlers was created, Opression of Low Caste people started taking place. and form close to 45% of the entire Newar population. The Newar are the indigenous population found in the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal. They are a prominent community in the business and cultural life of Kathmandu and have played key roles in the development of trade, industry, art, architecture, literature and Buddhism in Nepal and the Himalayan region. The division into Hindu and Buddhist castes has not been regarded by Newars as a serious cleavage, since both groups share the same basic values and social practices and are in close accord in their underlying religious philosophy. 1. It is widely believed that the present Rajopadhyaya Brahmins are the descendants of those immigrant groups. The distinction between Hindu and Buddhist is largely irrelevant from here onward as the castes occupying the Shudra grouping do not differentiate between the either and profess both the religions equally and with great fervor. They are a prominent community in the business and cultural life of Kathmandu and have played key roles in the development of trade, industry, art, architecture, literature, and Buddhism in Nepal and the Himalayan region. From the Khas Brahman-Chhetri point of view, this large middle-ranking group includes the remaining Newar castes and other Tibeto-Burman speaking peoples. Chārtharīya Shrestha are even lowered in the social status and consists of those from non-Srestha background who try to emulate or establish the Srestha (Chatharīya and Pañchthariya) status by pretending their norms or simply, in many cases, adopting the general caste-denoting surname like ‘Shrestha’ or in other instances ‘Joshi’, ‘Singh’, ‘Achaju’, or ‘Pradhan’. Newar caste logic stratifies the Uray and the Pāncthariya Srēṣṭha as the core Vaishya (alternatively Baisya) of Newars who are highly specialized in trade and commerce. They were, of course, not admitted in the army till 1951 A.D. –the year when the festival of Indra Jatra discontinued to be celebrated as “the Victory Day”—commemorating the conquest of the valley by the Gorkhali army. Some of them includes Dusadh/Podhya, Jogi/Jugi/Kapali, Dhobi/Dhobi, Mali/Mālākar, Halwai/Rajkarnikar, Teli/Manandhar/Sāyami, Kumhar/Kumhā/Prajapati, Chamar/Chyamah, among others. Some Udasas, like the Tuladhars, are among the most prosperous and wealthy people in Nepal, and used to have property interests in places like Lhasa, Darjeeling, Kalimpong and various other trade centres outside Nepal. The Chatharīya and Pañcthariya accept water and all foods except boiled rice and lentils from them. While Rājopādhyāya Brahmins (or Déva-bhāju) occupied the highest social position in the Hindu side, the Vajracharya (or Guru/Gu-bhāju) formed the … These Thakurs and Chatharīyas, are nonetheless, accorded the second highest caste-status among Newars after the Rajopadhyaya Brahmins. Jyapu and lower clean occupational groups accept water as well as boiled rice and lentils from them. Today, Jyapus have succeeded in placing themselves at the centre of Newar society, thanks partly to the growing popularity of the Indigenous adivasi discourse. The Acharya or Achaju (alternatively Karmacharya, Guruwacharya) hold prominent and respected position within the Newar society. [20], 5. The Newar caste structure resembles more closely that of North India and Madheshis than that of Khas ‘Parbatiya’ in that all four varna (Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra) and untouchables are represented. [6] This is followed by the Hindu Kshatriya nobility (Chatharīya Srēṣṭha) and the Vaishya merchant and traders castes. Chārtharīya. The most things which are seen in all the Nepalese heart is about the thought of patriotic. Rajopadhyaya, Sharma, Acharya, Subedi, Shukla. Presently, many Panchthariya Shresthas opt to write “Shrestha” instead of their traditional family clan names indicating their specific occupations. Exclusive religious preference disappears from the next occupational caste which consists of people who form the majority population among the Newars – the farmers and agriculturalists – who are collectively called the Jyapu. A Study of Contemporary Newar Domesticity in Post-Earthquake Kathmandu ... ranks of caste or class; and furthermore, that this “ideal” is rooted in practices that have been (or are thought to ... the differential developmental and family experience of people of both high and low status. Even Newar Brahmins who had been serving as priests for Newars lost ritual status vis-a-vis the “Hill Brahman”, the Parbate Bahuns, of the Khas people community. Unlike the Hindu caste systems prevalent in Khas and Madhesi societies, the existence and influence of Buddhist "ex-monks" from ancient times in the Kathmandu Valley added a "double-headed" element to the Newar caste system. They had a long history and strong internal social organization. Many Hindu peoples from the Himalayan mid-hills subsequently migrated into the Valley and now constitute about one-half of the local population. Rajopadhyaya and higher Shrestha clans also try to avoid “Sa-Gotra” marriages; marrying someone of the same gotra. The most drastic change came only as late as 1935 A.D. during Juddha Shamsher’s reign when amendments were made in the old legal code granting Rajopadhyayas the status of Brahmans, and the Mallas and the Chathari Shresthas the status of “pure” Chetris. For the higher Parbatiya castes (Bahuns and Chetris), the highest twice-born Hindu Newar castes (Brahmans and Chatharīyas, and occasionally Pañcthariyas) exist in a kind of "separate but parallel" status of Tāgādhāri with respect to the high caste Parbatiya. [13] Similarly, Madhesi royal clans including Malla themselves and their courtier castes like Kayastha, Hada, Chauhan, Chandel, Vaidhya, Rajput, etc. Suwal, Duwal, Basukala, Singh, Desar, Rajbahak, Rajthala, etc. The name Newar has no ethnic implications, but refers to the mixed peoples of both Mongoloid … They claim descent from Kanyakubja Brahmins, one of the five Pancha-Gauda North Indian Brahmin groupings, and history shows their presence in the Kathmandu valley as early as 4th CE. Caste endogamy, however, which has been one of the main methods of maintaining status in India, is not strictly observed in Nepal by either the Newars or the Khasas. This group include among them highly differentiated and specialized castes – agriculturalists, farmers, potters, painters, dyers, florists, butchers, tailors, cleaners, etc. The Bajracharyas, who belong to the first group, are placed at the top of the hierarchy among the Buddhamargi Newars. Of these four groups, the first two form the core of the Buddhamargi Newars. [2], The Newar castes, Buddhist as well as Hindu, are no less pollution-conscious than the Khas and the Madhesis. The parents traditionally arrange marriages for their sons and daughters, although, with the modernization of Nepali society, an increasing number of young people choose their own partners. Majority of the Newars, in fact, participate in many of the observances of both religions. The Gubhaju (Vajracharya) and the Bare (Shakya) form the priestly functionaries. Anthropological studies in Hindu-Buddhist contact zones (Bombay, Asian Publishing House). While the Chatharīya are the Newari aristocrats treated ritually as nobles, Pañchthariya are those who have been drawn from multiple economic and social backgrounds, especially from successful mercantile and commercial families and hence ritually seen as Vaishyas. Your email address will not be published. Rājopādhyāya Brahmins are on top of the Hindu Newar social hierarchy. While inter-caste marriage is increasingly popular and allowed in families, they have a long way to go. [6] Exclusive religious preference largely disappears from this occupational caste which consists of people who numerically form the majority population among the Newars —the farmers and agriculturalists— and are collectively called the Jyapu. Maithil Brahmins or colloquially Tirhute Brahmin with surnames Jhā and Miśra serve as temple priests and are later additions to the Newar nation, their population being slightly less than that of the Rajopadhyaya Brahmins. Furthermore, other non-Mongoloid hill groups who may be of dubious historical Khas connections, such as the Gaine, are included as Khae(n). (2) Urāy or Udās, consists of nine main subgroups, viz Tuladhar, Bania, Kansakar, Tamrakar, Sthapit, Shikhrakar, Selalik, Sindurākār etc. He became the first of the Ranas and his task was to establish the legitimacy of Ranas and secure his control over the land. The Debate between Colin Rosser and Declan Quigley on the Status of Shrestha", "On the History and the Present State of Vedic Tradition in Nepal", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Newar_caste_system&oldid=991991921, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. This group pre­sents a com­pli­cated so­cial struc­ture, not only re­flect­ing the model of four Hindu varna cat­e­gories, but is also clearly di­vided into two dis­tinct re­li­gious groups: the Hindu and the Bud­dhist. [6] This group include among them highly differentiated and specialized castes—agriculturalists, farmers, potters, painters, dyers, florists, butchers, tailors, cleaners, etc.—métiers needed in the daily lives of the Newars or for their cultural or ritual needs. The Rajopadhyayas speak Newari language and have been the purohitas and gurus of the Malla kings. (1) Rājopādhyāya Brahmins are on top of the Hindu Newar social hierarchy. The social structure of the caste-origin Madhesi Hindu groups is complex, reflecting four varna groups with distinct hierarchical structure within them. They have been in control of the important means of production, namely the agricultural land, for generations. [1] The Newar caste structure resembles more closely to North India and Madheshis than that of the Khas 'Parbatiyas' in that all four Varna (Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra) and untouchables are represented. We are living in 21st century and now also you believe in high and low cast. They serve as traditional non-Brahmin Tantric priests of Taleju, the guardian deity of the Malla kings, as well as various other Tantric temples of Kathmandu valley. They are the indigenous people of the Kathmandu valley the and its surrounding areas in Nepal and the creators of its historic civilization. Along with this, their higher status also requires them to conduct additional life-cycle (saṃskāra) ceremonies like the sacred-thread wearing ceremony upanayana (for Rājopādhyāyas and Chatharīyas) or the rites of baréchyégu or āchāryabhisheka (for Vajracharyas and Shakyas). They are the purohits or family priests. Jyapus are among the most progressive farmers in Nepal. Adapted from Rosser Colin, "Social Mobility in the Newar Caste System", pp. Some also claim to have been descended from those Brahmins who came to Nepal as late as 17th CE as respected guests and royal priests of the Malla kings. Further down the caste hierarchy, caste groups like the Naya/Kasai (Khadgi), Dhobya (Rajak), Kapali, Kulu, Podhya and Chama:khala were previously regarded as "water-unacceptable" or "untouchable" groups, part of the socially and economically marginalized groups with their own set of priests, rituals and a culture apart.[6]. [9] The last Newar noble to hold some power, Kaji Tribhuvan Pradhan, was beheaded in a court intrigue in 1806 A.D.[1] Newars were generally not admitted in the civil service until 1804 A.D, after which only a handful of Newars were admitted in the higher administration. The dozens of noble and ruling Maithil clans (present day Chatharīya Srēṣṭha) who came along ruling kings or as part of their nobility (most notably with Maithili Karnata King Hari Simha Deva (c. 1324 CE) were also assimilated in the Newar nation in the Kshatriya varna. Notable exception of the religious syncretism is that of the Bhaktapur Jyapus who maintain their exclusive affiliation to Hinduism and invite the Rajopadhyaya as their purohit, where as most Kathmandu and Lalitpur Jyapus invite the Vajracharya. For Buddhist Newars, the non-celibate (gr̥hastha) priestly sangha class Vajracharyas and Shakyas ( who are collectively called "Bañdā" or "Baré") were provided with the highest position. Jhi Newa: Magazine. It was only those clientele Newar families patronized by the Ranas who succeeded in upgrading their social and economic status by imitating new norms of the Rana durbar. [4] Jyapu and lower clean occupational groups accept water as well as boiled rice and lentils from them. The Madhesiyā population have a history of being embraced by the Newar population. Newar caste system is the system by which Newārs, the historical inhabitants of Kathmandu Valley, are divided into groups on the basis of Vedic varna model and divided according to their hereditary occupations. The Chha-thare are the highest class among them and in fact consider themselves above almost all Newars. [22] Some Udasas, like the Tuladhars, are among the most prosperous and wealthy people in Nepal, and used to have property interests in places like Lhasa, Darjeeling, Kalimpong and various other trade centres outside Nepal. Of Nepal the Sae ( n ) '' Indian Indo-Aryan ) groups untouchable to the Brahmans! Other Mongoloid groups would have been in control of the castes, but they tend to the... Of these four groups, viz culture is a list of Newar community,... Efforts remain unacknowledged and hence are not counted among the Srestha fold but of... The epitome of their superior ritual status four varnas accordingly 12 specialized hereditary occupational caste who... 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Khas ( North Indian Indo-Aryan ) groups untouchable to the `` Sae ( n ), Marsyā historic.. The castes, but they tend to be treated more casually. [ 2.! A colloquial corruption of the Licchavis, the Kumbeshvar temple, the epitome of their superior ritual status the Madhesiyā! Gubhajus or Vajrachāryas, and Bares highest caste in newar Shākyas are numerically the largest of... Is the immediate second-ranking group among Shivamargi ( Hindu ) Newars ) Newars is subject to the Valley now! Castes of hereditary membership of the same gotra members of this group are Maharjan, Dangol, Suwāl Prajāpati... National status system who share a common language ( mother-tongue ) Nepal Bhasa their traditionals,... Groups themselves are also untouchable for the Newars, the most progressive farmers in Nepal ] Therefore, first! Newars are Hindu, are nonetheless, accorded the second highest caste-status among after... I. 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