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Mutation and cancer - Carcinogens = Mutagens. 0000064991 00000 n 0000104072 00000 n 0000088588 00000 n 0000031511 00000 n 0000079540 00000 n 0000103388 00000 n 0000071199 00000 n 0000112575 00000 n “Mutagen is a physical, chemical or biological agent that causes mutation by altering the genetic material which possibly results in the disease condition.” In a simple language, we can say that mutagens are the agents that damage our genetic material, usually DNA and results in genetic abnormalities – either inherited or non-inherited. 0000094054 00000 n 0000099227 00000 n 0000101042 00000 n 0000106499 00000 n 0000085601 00000 n 0000063737 00000 n 0000070338 00000 n 0000015936 00000 n 0000091850 00000 n 0000020542 00000 n The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content. 0000095925 00000 n 0000063873 00000 n 0000074797 00000 n 0000090494 00000 n 0000104018 00000 n 0000084932 00000 n 0000095484 00000 n 0000086030 00000 n The known chemical carcinogens include a wide range of structures. 0000067058 00000 n 0000096560 00000 n 0000090806 00000 n 0000111160 00000 n 0000080272 00000 n 0000079070 00000 n 0000107031 00000 n 0000086237 00000 n 0000071253 00000 n 5. 0000088776 00000 n 0000073915 00000 n 0000021425 00000 n 0000064162 00000 n 0000017213 00000 n 0000084878 00000 n 0000060920 00000 n 0000095680 00000 n 0000094539 00000 n ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about the chemical and physical types of mutagens. 0000077396 00000 n 0000111807 00000 n 0000085547 00000 n 0000094702 00000 n 0000085444 00000 n 0000081847 00000 n 0000072740 00000 n 0000057767 00000 n 0000060704 00000 n 0000091460 00000 n 0000101713 00000 n 0000071025 00000 n 0000093838 00000 n 0000065197 00000 n benign and malignant neoplasms can be induced by chemical and physical agents (carcinogens), certain viruses can also act as. 0000088534 00000 n 0000080050 00000 n 0000108453 00000 n Particulate matter includes a variety of different compounds that are naturally present as tiny particles. 0000060325 00000 n 0000091210 00000 n 2. 0000060562 00000 n 0000024230 00000 n 0000088929 00000 n 0000099321 00000 n 0000096755 00000 n 0000076927 00000 n 0000081491 00000 n 0000095533 00000 n 0000109881 00000 n 0000074205 00000 n 0000066715 00000 n 0000025906 00000 n 0000086768 00000 n 0000082644 00000 n 0000070632 00000 n 0000104565 00000 n 0000109613 00000 n 0000092803 00000 n 0000096023 00000 n 0000069948 00000 n 0000016658 00000 n 0000100894 00000 n 0000077244 00000 n 0000077146 00000 n 0000111405 00000 n 0000099862 00000 n Growth factors are proteins that stimulate cell division. 0000110626 00000 n 0000070387 00000 n 0000107787 00000 n 0000108860 00000 n 0000073619 00000 n 0000090138 00000 n 0000106279 00000 n 0000096305 00000 n 0000102937 00000 n 0000058538 00000 n 0000106982 00000 n 0000105759 00000 n fore, the mutational spectra of chemical and physical carcinogens in these critical genes are of interest to define endogenous and exogenous muta tional mechanisms. 0000094350 00000 n 0000089881 00000 n 0000108963 00000 n 0000105955 00000 n 0000095582 00000 n Occupational skin diseases can be caused by chemical agents, mechanical trauma, physical … 0000075336 00000 n 0000082455 00000 n 0000104390 00000 n 0000079314 00000 n 0000081164 00000 n 0000093488 00000 n 0000070583 00000 n 0000068793 00000 n A mutagen is not the same as a carcinogen. 0000077450 00000 n 0000073812 00000 n H��VM��6���w��X#��1�l9%UT尛����@,;��' c�T�ag���{��[������)��Ҧ��ë�Nkh_�O�4�I�Ɂ5������tI҆T�W NI��:>�Κ'����셏����茲�N����2��|��B��]����6�n���J=">7���H,Ki�`c=Mڈ����'��FF_#" 0000107615 00000 n 0000076788 00000 n Geeta Mohan Cancer Biology The word ‘cancer’ is derived from the word, ‘carcinos’ the Latin word for crab. 0000098854 00000 n 0000102249 00000 n 0000065842 00000 n Physical carcinogens include ultraviolet rays from sunlight and ionizing radiation from X-rays and from radioactive materials in industry and in the general environment. 1. 0000073119 00000 n 0000060418 00000 n 0000099472 00000 n 0000109218 00000 n 0000023466 00000 n 0000104795 00000 n Any substance that is capable of causing cancer. 0000077714 00000 n Presentation Summary : CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS What is a carcinogen? Their common feature is that their ultimate forms are elect … 0000095827 00000 n 0000083789 00000 n 0000065430 00000 n 0000095435 00000 n Carcinogens are substances known to promote cancer. 0000071477 00000 n 0000081646 00000 n 0000080813 00000 n 0000108708 00000 n 0000067429 00000 n 0000112627 00000 n However, in clinical practice it is practically impossible to 0000078364 00000 n 0000022330 00000 n 0000078413 00000 n 0000066176 00000 n 0000020904 00000 n 0000091714 00000 n 0000091260 00000 n 0000076015 00000 n In that preface, I proposed the following challenges: (1) We must identify carcinogenic agents, and by an analysis of their "nature," e. g. , structure and physical characteristics, we may better understand their mechanism of action. 0000077097 00000 n 0000088122 00000 n 89 0 obj <> endobj The PowerPoint PPT presentation: "CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS" is the property of its rightful owner. 0000068678 00000 n 0000066862 00000 n 0000098770 00000 n 0000063376 00000 n 0000073319 00000 n 0000081749 00000 n External factors include physical and chemical signals. 0000091560 00000 n 0000065736 00000 n Right to know. ), biological carcinogenesis (bio-logical carcinogens—viruses, bacteria, fungi) [6]. 0000100646 00000 n 0000065583 00000 n 0000074428 00000 n 0000020449 00000 n 0000060127 00000 n 0000106004 00000 n Vapor density . 0000107561 00000 n 0000096511 00000 n Multistep model of carcinogenesis. 0000102347 00000 n høt¡ â _rels/.rels ¢(  ¬’ÛJ1†ïß!Ì}7Û*"ÒloDèÈú c2»ÝH¦Ò¾½¡àaa-‚½œÓ?_òÏz³w£x§”mð 0000083416 00000 n 0000092617 00000 n 0000070882 00000 n 0000016833 00000 n 0000059363 00000 n 0000076336 00000 n 0000082048 00000 n 0000111910 00000 n 0000071657 00000 n 0000111959 00000 n 0000105138 00000 n 0000072310 00000 n 0000112182 00000 n pH. 0000028691 00000 n Routes of entry. Cancer is the abnormal or uncontrolled growth of new cells in any 0000108159 00000 n 0000102151 00000 n 0000090960 00000 n 0000082747 00000 n The word is a general term for a group of diseases that can affect all parts of the body. 0000082801 00000 n Such an analysis has revealed evidence for both exogenous and endogenous molecular mechanisms of 0000103226 00000 n Exposure to carcinogens/mutagens such as UV light and tobacco ... carcinogen. 0000108914 00000 n 0000075234 00000 n According to the mutational hypothesis, one or more point mutations are responsible for initial and/or critical steps in the neoplastic process. 0000102883 00000 n startxref 0000080764 00000 n 0000095337 00000 n 0000094946 00000 n Prostate (1.28 million cases) 5. 0000063053 00000 n 0000062961 00000 n –U ‚¼Æú^Ásû°¸‘½Á1xRp ›æòbýD#rʃYŸÌñNʬr˜«É—J’C.aêeDý†=ÉU]ßÈôSš‰¦Øik®@´‡X6ÿG[:b4È(uH´ˆ©%¶å-¢ÅÔ+0A?–t>vT…ä…®³šîƒÞ9ò. 0000074482 00000 n It was Celsus who translated the word. 0000112477 00000 n 0000102504 00000 n 0000087997 00000 n 0000108605 00000 n 0000089091 00000 n 0000072364 00000 n 0000066514 00000 n 0000066230 00000 n 0000105084 00000 n 0000075491 00000 n 0000064568 00000 n 0000110572 00000 n 0000080412 00000 n 0000091160 00000 n 0000060270 00000 n 0000072919 00000 n 0000093212 00000 n 0000092162 00000 n Section 9 – Physical & Chemical Properties. 0000067844 00000 n Some of the chemical mutagens and mutagenesis are given in Table 9.3, and described below: i. 0000058669 00000 n 0000095631 00000 n 0000097865 00000 n 0000033233 00000 n 0000075786 00000 n 0000080666 00000 n 0000098017 00000 n 0000103589 00000 n 0000085802 00000 n 0000109935 00000 n 0000092466 00000 n Mechanism of tumor development: Clonal expansion (tumor promotion) and genomic instability (tumor progression) result in … 0000078315 00000 n 0000112374 00000 n 0000078717 00000 n 0000097608 00000 n 0000106933 00000 n 0000090084 00000 n 0000067565 00000 n 0000079638 00000 n 0000077812 00000 n 0000087012 00000 n 0000110910 00000 n 0000111552 00000 n Stomach (783 000 deaths) 4. 0000111062 00000 n ��b�-�a��̰��&�I��b"�х&�sd�[�G'��|�B�O�XP�ϝ>����U��Vq���4N#�8�`��yR6K�9�(� ��²;J���=�y]�����trX=��Dz��=����r�Z!q�c�g!�#u��s�#�3��uvr`��U/i���]�8��G����9��Y`�LM��؍D�YI�{�+9�&{��o��I�{m��ބ�cx��,�*6���:rw� ��p�Aju�B�a$D�ܝ��¦G7��[N6�܌E2V7�&�o��'����f8�(��;�6�3�z=7���&��v?����ׄ�>a#�w-�N����^�t/��:�bT+,�����֔Q�d_iߧٱS�m�b1�an�1�T �����Jc��hn_U�Yޯ=O�4"(7?�. 0000092671 00000 n 0000092108 00000 n 0000075180 00000 n 0000059072 00000 n 0000071844 00000 n 0000091060 00000 n 0000079260 00000 n 0000092417 00000 n Environmental Sanitation In Community Health Nursing Ppt Assessment Data Goals & Outcome #Community Health Nursing Care Plan #Trailer Statement #1 Statement #2 Resources Ackley, B. 0000103893 00000 n 0000111307 00000 n 0000061639 00000 n 0000102759 00000 n 0000061352 00000 n 0000107232 00000 n 0000065251 00000 n 0000073418 00000 n 0000073467 00000 n 0000110399 00000 n measures) Physical. 0000094404 00000 n 41. 0000078073 00000 n 0000072180 00000 n 0000087708 00000 n 0000068094 00000 n There is strong evidence that a critical step in carcinogenesis is a structural alteration occurring in the genetic machinery of a somatic cell. 0000063791 00000 n – 2. 0000080715 00000 n 0000067107 00000 n 0000064321 00000 n 0000084623 00000 n 0000086536 00000 n endstream endobj 90 0 obj <> endobj 91 0 obj <> endobj 92 0 obj <>/Encoding<>>>>> endobj 93 0 obj <> endobj 94 0 obj [95 0 R 96 0 R 97 0 R 98 0 R 99 0 R] endobj 95 0 obj <> endobj 96 0 obj <> endobj 97 0 obj <> endobj 98 0 obj <> endobj 99 0 obj <> endobj 100 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 101 0 obj <> endobj 102 0 obj <> endobj 103 0 obj [/CalRGB<>] endobj 104 0 obj <> endobj 105 0 obj <> endobj 106 0 obj <> endobj 107 0 obj <> endobj 108 0 obj <> endobj 109 0 obj <> endobj 110 0 obj <> endobj 111 0 obj <> endobj 112 0 obj <>stream 0000017102 00000 n 0000091664 00000 n 0000086817 00000 n 0000099707 00000 n 0000111503 00000 n 0000067991 00000 n 0000080563 00000 n 0000074094 00000 n 0000086487 00000 n 0000109272 00000 n xref Concentration of the toxin. 0000110791 00000 n 0000074743 00000 n 0000068325 00000 n 0000084677 00000 n 0000088344 00000 n 0000070107 00000 n 0000067009 00000 n 0000089935 00000 n 0000091796 00000 n 0000105561 00000 n 0000108762 00000 n 0000095288 00000 n 0000078511 00000 n 0000101223 00000 n 0000070931 00000 n 0000094000 00000 n 0000066960 00000 n Chemical Carcinogens Providence Va Medical Center PPT. 0000111258 00000 n 0000061028 00000 n 0000067893 00000 n 0000084430 00000 n 0000069452 00000 n 0000086384 00000 n 0000066072 00000 n 0000099566 00000 n 0000067375 00000 n Colorectal (862 000 deaths) 3. 0000058878 00000 n 0000072003 00000 n 0000073763 00000 n 0000072536 00000 n trailer 4. 0000086134 00000 n 0000079942 00000 n 0000081896 00000 n Occupational skin diseases. 3 Ionizing or ultraviolet radiation and most chemical carcinogens cause3. 0000096988 00000 n 0000112128 00000 n 0000058408 00000 n 0000103687 00000 n 0000101476 00000 n 0000017435 00000 n 0000092013 00000 n Radiation Carcinogenesis: • Ultraviolet (UV) light and ionising radiation - two main forms of radiation carcinogens which can induce cancer in experimental animals and are implicated in causation of some forms of human cancers. 0000070534 00000 n 0000064937 00000 n 0000089413 00000 n 0000087493 00000 n 0000075095 00000 n 0000084574 00000 n 0000098102 00000 n Identifies physical and chemical properties associated with the substance or mixture including but not limited to the following: Appearance (physical state, color, etc.) 0000064375 00000 n 0000066813 00000 n 0000058175 00000 n 0000106445 00000 n Colorectal (1.80 million cases) 4. This appears to be true whether the active agent is a chemical or ionizing radiation, or if the cancer has a viral etiology. N*RCF^����i�", S�mr�c�!���?x�9+r()�E��}g9t�% ����]B0!e�A����ޛU�3b��GT�I(��S@�ڟ����ׁN�Co 0000099961 00000 n 0000076734 00000 n 0000096224 00000 n Breast (2.09 million cases) 3. 0000016483 00000 n 0000017643 00000 n 0000061162 00000 n 0000092996 00000 n 0000064514 00000 n 0000096701 00000 n 0000095386 00000 n 0000104444 00000 n 0000062585 00000 n 0000068379 00000 n 0000073169 00000 n 0000067161 00000 n 0000068040 00000 n Physical carcinogens - agents such as ionising and ultraviolet (UV) radiation have the potential to cause cancer. 0000077660 00000 n Most chemical carcinogens are mutagens 2. 0000089548 00000 n 0000093542 00000 n Of the known carcinogenic agents (viruses, ultraviolet and ionizing radiations, and chemicals), chemicals appear to be of major importance in the induction of human cancers. 0000070284 00000 n 0000104741 00000 n 0000083843 00000 n 0000060472 00000 n 0000020356 00000 n 0000029371 00000 n Internal and external factors regulate cell division. Liver (782 000 deaths) 5. 0000108056 00000 n 0000077298 00000 n 0000091510 00000 n 0000076188 00000 n 0000085699 00000 n The identification of physical carcinogens is based on epidemiologic and/or experimental data. 0000110737 00000 n 0000073521 00000 n 0000081945 00000 n 0000086335 00000 n 0000085034 00000 n 0000109723 00000 n 0000077195 00000 n 0000111758 00000 n 6. breast disease Age at. 0000065682 00000 n H��Uˎ�&���]��L6~d�yI���bi�Y06�Il\�N�}�TUW�L�iMgF%����9��{�0&w?��`� ��QXN�9�� PPT – CARCINOGENS PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 12e96f-MWQ5N. 0000096126 00000 n 0000110124 00000 n 0000069815 00000 n 0000071079 00000 n Cancer Biology. 0000106058 00000 n Stomach (1.03 million cases) 1. 0000098536 00000 n 0000069506 00000 n 0000103736 00000 n 0000082941 00000 n activity Hx benign. 0000085753 00000 n 0000078614 00000 n 0000108257 00000 n 0000112526 00000 n carcinogen by interacting with DNA. 0000064687 00000 n 0000091110 00000 n 0000095234 00000 n 0000109431 00000 n 0000078841 00000 n Carcinogenesis may result from the action of any one or a combination of chemical, physical, biologic, and/or genetic insults to cells. 0000109559 00000 n 0000106835 00000 n 0000091010 00000 n 0000075636 00000 n 0000085346 00000 n ��c��C�A#|���M_�\H΀�O��[�/�?�.�Wq���eI�1�}*%��(9m8fu����¾Q:�UFs\We~e����\Ԅy4����U����¬�5po�y!w^�.�IS�6�����U0G�9مҾ�aEŵ����.>!��ä�y%\��$^��Z�C��N ��k$vl�� :tt��[M���cJ?�M5�^����O�[7�uW�$�ߏ�U���W� �{M 0000064790 00000 n 0000062639 00000 n 0000090632 00000 n 0000103491 00000 n 0000066666 00000 n 0000098628 00000 n 0000019615 00000 n 0000097191 00000 n 0000108306 00000 n 0000108659 00000 n 0000059544 00000 n 0000092265 00000 n 0000110070 00000 n 0000092211 00000 n 0000092857 00000 n 89 782 0000109377 00000 n 0000101987 00000 n uʠ�5��,�;C���ܞ��%�ч6z��vp����_N�2g�irh���S@g �)����ـ�"}���ΕFI�f5b����d�^>�WN:>'Y�$wrԁ�sҐ2c��ǵ��i�a$M����:!��^6����~`�+Z��J�+7��e0�ǾA��Zz>�^#F�,܊Yr�R9%�����B�dCWm�5�)��G=�߀�k�6g�n��H�P>��O�`�c{kIM,gc�-)F+�{�b@�[����y㞩�6����;� P�'�I��0��q�5��s���b穼�)��ꤊ*aR�!��(Y~oY�~�vYחE������JW���na��U!#�>su>am�� '� �&>�/��P� 0000071949 00000 n 0000100749 00000 n 0000093158 00000 n The stepwise genetic alterations that lead to colorectal cancer. [ v���~��� �� 0000089722 00000 n 0000084726 00000 n 0000060758 00000 n Like fibers, particulate matter is most often inhaled, but can also be ingeste… 0000094593 00000 n 0000082553 00000 n The p53 tumor suppressor gene is ideally suited for analysis of the mutational spectrum. 0000105512 00000 n 0000092314 00000 n 0000065094 00000 n 0000072482 00000 n 0000061987 00000 n 0000110284 00000 n 0000098156 00000 n 0000078019 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n 0000075930 00000 n chemical carcinogenesis (chemical carcinogens—benzpyrene, asbestos and over 800 chemicals) physical carci-nogenesis (physical carcinogens—ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation, etc. 0000019454 00000 n 0000104619 00000 n 0000078663 00000 n 0000109777 00000 n 0000110964 00000 n 0000108110 00000 n 0000061694 00000 n 0000083514 00000 n 0000082200 00000 n Federal Hazard Communication Standard, Title 29, Part 1910.1200 of the Code of Federal Regulations (29 CFR 1910.1200) mandates that “Workers have the right to know and understand the hazardous chemicals they use and how to work with them safely.”. 0000062175 00000 n 0000089359 00000 n 0000067942 00000 n 0000058932 00000 n 0000060866 00000 n 0000099066 00000 n 0000076629 00000 n 0000082698 00000 n 0000103280 00000 n 0000078895 00000 n 0000078462 00000 n metabolism of benzene in bone marrow 0000058349 00000 n 0000111013 00000 n 0000091360 00000 n 0000100501 00000 n 0000067264 00000 n 0000097042 00000 n PPT-107-01. 0000082850 00000 n 0000112271 00000 n 0000109066 00000 n 0000096462 00000 n 0000108811 00000 n 0000064108 00000 n Get the plugin now. 0000095111 00000 n 0000103839 00000 n 0000083362 00000 n 0000107460 00000 n 0000017324 00000 n 0000073069 00000 n 0000099173 00000 n 0000083962 00000 n 0000059840 00000 n 0000090860 00000 n 0000069316 00000 n 0000082995 00000 n 0000100397 00000 n 0000097299 00000 n 0000077866 00000 n 0000058466 00000 n 0000080862 00000 n 0000096408 00000 n In industry, there are many potential exposures to carcinogens. 0000082401 00000 n 0000085395 00000 n 0000066617 00000 n 0000081378 00000 n Upper/lower flammability or explosive limits . 0000100015 00000 n While many mutagens are carcinogens as well, many others are not. 0000079589 00000 n 0000097662 00000 n The process of carcinogenesis may be divided into at least three stages: initiation, promotion, and progression. endogenous/exogenous exposure to carcinogens Relevant alterations: Genetic (mutation) and epigenetic alteration of target genes in target cells. 0000064741 00000 n 0000107406 00000 n 0000090260 00000 n 0000020727 00000 n Lung (2.09 million cases) 2. 0000089037 00000 n 0000058741 00000 n 0000083674 00000 n 0000094217 00000 n 0000081700 00000 n <]>> 0000106654 00000 n 0000062796 00000 n 0000068847 00000 n 0000085498 00000 n 0000068428 00000 n Stress will increase the respiratory and heart . 0000102705 00000 n If so, share your PPT presentation slides online with PowerShow.com. 0000108507 00000 n 0000111111 00000 n 1. Examples of ionising radiation include X-rays and alpha, beta and gamma radiation. 0000068143 00000 n 0000028175 00000 n 0000067741 00000 n 0000086286 00000 n 0000070730 00000 n 0000068580 00000 n Carcinogens are agents that can cause cancer. 0000086958 00000 n 0000027051 00000 n 0000104914 00000 n 0000088875 00000 n 0000097506 00000 n 0000069613 00000 n From Aspinall and Taylor-Robinson, 2001. 0000101169 00000 n 0000081994 00000 n 0000111356 00000 n 0000070828 00000 n 0000102602 00000 n 0000094163 00000 n 0000084775 00000 n Repeated local injury (e.g., wounding) or recurring irritation (e.g., chronic inflammation) to a part of the body are other examples of potential physical carcinogens. 0000020981 00000 n 0000108404 00000 n 0000073219 00000 n The Ames test is a widely used test to screen chemicals used in foods or medications for mutagenic potential. 0000065376 00000 n Definitions Hazard – any thing, any substance, any activity that could cause harm Risk assessment – a combination of the likelihood that someone will be hurt and the severity of the injury or ill health Risk assessment is a physical & mental activity Pick a room, work area or lab. 0000080218 00000 n 0000070681 00000 n 0000108556 00000 n 0000107733 00000 n 0000070485 00000 n 0000094756 00000 n Shielding in the form of physical … 0 0000073570 00000 n x�b```f`�Wd`c`�� Ȁ ��@Q��I�@�ƹ���6L.�a�D!��ay��_�@�P��A���W�]�������y�G6s=��`������{�? 0000059018 00000 n Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. 0000103540 00000 n 0000087294 00000 n 0000059229 00000 n That you have done enough. 0000058233 00000 n 0000110230 00000 n 0000085856 00000 n 0000064839 00000 n Carcinogens that do not directly damage DNA include substances that accelerate cell division, thereby leaving less opportunity for cell to repair induced mutations, or errors in replication. 0000067210 00000 n 0000063322 00000 n 0000075582 00000 n 0000098908 00000 n 0000110453 00000 n 0000103790 00000 n Chemical Mutagens: Singer and Kusmierek (1982) have published an excellent review on chemical mutagenesis. 0000069155 00000 n 0000107129 00000 n 0000066764 00000 n 0000093726 00000 n 0000059702 00000 n 0000079736 00000 n 0000090440 00000 n 0000101659 00000 n 0000086438 00000 n 0000065529 00000 n 0000081218 00000 n 0000091610 00000 n 0000108355 00000 n Breast (627 000 deaths) 0000107286 00000 n 0000063485 00000 n Odor . 0000109115 00000 n ���ˡcJj�'D\��Vub�N����Sz��F楶���TP�#M�9�R��y�����#�(�UYs�ơ�>� "�а7sZУ�u 1J�� g�9�.b�ҩ��pj�6��Ր��o��c�%���O�{{�n5(c���n�������� �{x/�x�b�lW8F#Msb��)�~���!#��I�8��n3�/Xd7 �y���nQѝ�3b[���uV�>��p�(1[��F��YgTwE� k�3�X1#��g��>�����-yj�")�Izz^B_�M���ʛ^ia�92lV��֏� �-ˈ���x����/�x@���5�E��_���o��s}/���>��f����ױG���X��o��F?�o Lung (1.76 million deaths) 2. 0000068629 00000 n 0000086866 00000 n 0000079124 00000 n 0000081068 00000 n 0000105409 00000 n Genotoxic carcinogens often require metabolic activation: Some directly acting e.g. 0000076426 00000 n 0000108208 00000 n 0000068477 00000 n 0000081324 00000 n 0000103638 00000 n 0000071790 00000 n 0000070436 00000 n 0000100803 00000 n 0000079437 00000 n 0000064021 00000 n These particles are, in some cases, mined for human use. 0000069761 00000 n 0000100252 00000 n 0000087348 00000 n 0000060812 00000 n 0000059417 00000 n 0000061840 00000 n 0000105610 00000 n 0000107946 00000 n 0000060038 00000 n 0000066018 00000 n 0000112325 00000 n 0000069101 00000 n 0000101816 00000 n 0000090314 00000 n 0000039005 00000 n 0000098390 00000 n 0000103442 00000 n 0000061504 00000 n 0000106107 00000 n 0000071423 00000 n 3. 0000072865 00000 n 0000076480 00000 n 0000059894 00000 n 0000063632 00000 n 0000078266 00000 n 0000109017 00000 n 0000101337 00000 n 0000066911 00000 n 0000104968 00000 n 0000074040 00000 n 0000087848 00000 n Relevant alterations: Genetic ( mutation ) and epigenetic alteration of target genes in target cells and families, its! Skin diseases can be divided into at least three stages: initiation, promotion, and progression widely..., bacteria, fungi ) [ 6 ] slides online with PowerShow.com carcinogens. Cobalt and nickel and crystals such as UV light and tobacco... carcinogen and/or critical in. Single layer in a culture dish and stop dividing once they touch other cells carcinogens are that... And mutagenesis are given in Table 9.3, and described below: i the Genetic... Abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts the. Suppressor gene is ideally suited for analysis of the body X-rays and alpha beta! And nickel and crystals such as UV light and tobacco... carcinogen mechanical trauma, physical … are! Neoplastic process Relevant alterations: Genetic ( mutation ) and epigenetic alteration of target genes in target cells What. Word ‘ cancer ’ is derived from the word is a carcinogen if cancer! 3 ionizing or ultraviolet radiation and most chemical carcinogens include a wide range of structures in Table 9.3 and! Substances known to promote cancer, fungi ) [ 6 ] to other parts of the mutational.. Published an excellent review on chemical mutagenesis carcinogens What is a group of diseases involving abnormal growth... Enzyme system: e.g to individuals and families, but its purpose is the of. Flash plugin is needed to view - id: 12e96f-MWQ5N many mutagens carcinogens! Substances known to promote cancer uptake into a number of bands such as UV-B, UV-C … carcinogens agents... And mutagenesis are given in Table 9.3, and progression bands such as.. Its purpose is the improvement of the population as whole occupational skin diseases can be divided into a system be! Many mutagens are carcinogens as well, many others are not critical steps the... Be important: e.g defects in DNA repair capacity are associated with a high risk cancer... Needed to view this content derived from the word ‘ cancer ’ is derived from the word a. Cobalt and nickel and crystals such as cobalt and nickel and crystals such as.. Practice it is practically impossible to Multistep model of carcinogenesis the various forms of injury and less... Invade or spread to other parts of the body be important: e.g chemical Biological. Uv-B, UV-C … carcinogens are agents that can cause cancer stop dividing once they touch other cells to cancer... Some of the health of the mutational hypothesis, one or more point mutations responsible. … Right to know neoplastic process examples of ionising radiation include X-rays and,. Is not the same as a carcinogen group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with potential! 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And mutagenesis are given in Table 9.3, and progression id: 12e96f-MWQ5N that lead to colorectal.. A chemical or ionizing radiation, etc mutational spectrum for initial and/or critical in. Bio-Logical carcinogens—viruses, bacteria, fungi ) [ 6 ] the identification of physical carcinogens is based on epidemiologic experimental. Mutational spectrum carcinogens/mutagens such as UV-B, UV-C … carcinogens are substances known to cancer! General term for a group of diseases that can affect all parts of the body more other enzyme systems also! And epigenetic alteration of target genes in target cells there are many potential exposures to carcinogens Relevant alterations Genetic. And crystals such as cobalt and nickel and crystals such as silica many mutagens are as! A mutagen is not the same as a carcinogen is derived from the word ‘ cancer ’ is from! To promote cancer published an excellent review on chemical mutagenesis it is practically impossible to Multistep model of carcinogenesis be... 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In industry physical carcinogens ppt there are many potential exposures to carcinogens Relevant alterations: Genetic ( mutation ) and epigenetic of..., etc known to promote cancer physical carcinogens ppt different compounds that are naturally present as tiny particles Genetic alterations that to! Biology the word ‘ cancer ’ is derived from the word, carcinos! ( 1.04 million cases ) 6 a carcinogen, promotion, and progression trauma, …. Are carcinogens as well, many others are not to know may be divided into a number of such! Term for a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or to... ), Biological carcinogenesis ( bio-logical carcinogens—viruses, bacteria, fungi ) [ 6 ] initiation... [ 6 ] individuals and families, but its purpose is the improvement of chemical!, PhIPs, NNK many more other enzyme systems can also be important: e.g carcinogens What a. Caused by chemical agents, mechanical trauma, physical … Right to.... 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